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In: Spatial Vision
In: Nicht wahr?!
In: Was der Fall ist
In: Was der Fall ist
In: Was der Fall ist
In: Was der Fall ist
Casus und Lapsus
Series:  Anfänge
Der Band untersucht literarische Texte im Spannungsfeld von Fallgeschichten und Sündenfall-Mythos vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwartsliteratur. Seit dem 18. Jahrhundert macht die Fallgeschichte in Recht, Medizin, Psychologie und Literatur Karriere. Als interdiskursives Genre erzeugt und ordnet sie Wissen von Einzelfällen und verhandelt Verhältnisse von Besonderem und Allgemeinem, von Norm und Abweichung. Neben dem casus der Fallgeschichte bleiben jedoch auch der lapsus und die Erzählung vom Sündenfall virulent. Aus der semantischen Verschränkung von casus und lapsus ergeben sich paradoxe Fälle, in denen sich die Aporien normativer und epistemologischer Ordnungen zeigen. Das Interesse des vorliegenden Bandes gilt dem Profil solcher Fälle, ihrer Konstruktion, ihren epistemologischen Implikationen und dem, was sie immer wieder aufs Neue hervortreibt.

Abstract

Are alternation and co-occurrence of stimuli of different sensory modalities conspicuous? In a novel audio-visual oddball paradigm, the P300 was used as an index of the allocation of attention to investigate stimulus- and task-related interactions between modalities. Specifically, we assessed effects of modality alternation and the salience of conjunct oddball stimuli that were defined by the co-occurrence of both modalities. We presented (a) crossmodal audio-visual oddball sequences, where both oddballs and standards were unimodal, but of a different modality (i.e., visual oddball with auditory standard, or vice versa), and (b) oddball sequences where standards were randomly of either modality while the oddballs were a combination of both modalities (conjunct stimuli). Subjects were instructed to attend to one of the modalities (whether part of a conjunct stimulus or not). In addition, we also tested specific attention to the conjunct stimuli. P300-like responses occurred even when the oddball was of the unattended modality. The pattern of event-related potential (ERP) responses obtained with the two crossmodal oddball sequences switched symmetrically between stimulus modalities when the task modality was switched. Conjunct oddballs elicited no oddball response if only one modality was attended. However, when conjunctness was specifically attended, an oddball response was obtained. Crossmodal oddballs capture sufficient attention even when not attended. Conjunct oddballs, however, are not sufficiently salient to attract attention when the task is unimodal. Even when specifically attended, the processing of conjunctness appears to involve additional steps that delay the oddball response.

In: Multisensory Research