Despite the existence of success stories of individual teachers and even schoolwide groups of teachers successfully teaching from a global perspective, this paper raises a basic question: to what extent can the average teacher be an agent of change in the tradition of Dewey, Freire, and Giroux? The questioning of this role arises from the observation that many teachers are high achieving graduates of the very school system to which they have returned; and, as a result of spending their formative years in largely untroubled middle-class circumstances, are steeped in the dominant neoliberal ideology and consumer-orientation of the global market society. The author implicitly raises the issue, especially given his concerns about the power of the dominant ideology, as to just how critical and how transformative the actual classroom practice of global education and global citizenship education is or has the potential of being.
Transitioning From Soft to Critical Pedagogy in a Time of Possibility
Michael O’Sullivan and Karen Pashby
Citizenship Education in the Era of Globalization: Canadian Perspectives
Michael O’Sullivan and Karen Pashby
Edited by Michael O'Sullivan and Karen Pashby
The articles contained in Citizenship Education in the Era of Globalization: Canadian Perspectives map the history of citizenship, citizenship education and global studies and probe the notion of global citizenship for its possibilities and impossibilities. Recognizing the importance of engaging with the lives of students and teachers, the contributions also include articles reporting on research and theory about such topics as the complexities of second-generation youth identity and the extent to which mainstream teachers can bring global citizenship education into their classrooms. The collection presents an engaging look into the theory and practice of citizenship education in Canada during a time when bringing global issues to the classroom is an imperative of democratic schooling.
Harry Smaller, Michael O’sullivan, Xochilt Hernández and Ashley Rerrie
Mark P. Witton, Michael O’Sullivan and David M. Martill
Edited by M. Laurin
The evolution of pterodactyloid pterosaurs occurred in a ‘modular’ fashion with ‘pterodactyloid’-type crania and cervical vertebrae evolving in pterodactyloid sister taxa – early monofenestratan pterosaurs – before later postcervical modifications marked the development of the true pterodactyloid condition. This means of evolution creates problems for distinguishing isolated pterodactyloid crania from those of non-pterodactyloid monofenestratans, and has led to uncertainty over the affinities of two Late Jurassic European pterosaurs known only from skulls, Cuspicephalus scarfi Martill and Etches, 2013 and Normannognathus wellnhoferi Buffetaut et al. , 1998. Some aspects of their cranial anatomy suggest affinities to early pterodactyloids – specifically the Germanodactylidae – while others indicate a relationship with a group of non-pterodactyloid monofenestratans, the Wukongopteridae. Here, we characterise the skulls of Jurassic monofenestratans to provide greater insight into the identity of these pterosaurs. We find a suite of characters indicating that Cuspicephalus is a wukongopterid, notable for being a particularly large and long snouted member of the group, as well as the youngest, and the first European record of this clade. The affinities of Normannognathus are less clear however. We consider its previous allocation to the Germanodactylidae doubtful, and note some similarities it shares with ctenochasmatoid pterodactyloids, but the only known specimen is probably too fragmentary for confident referral to any specific clade within Monofenestrata.