Author: Michael Ryan

Abstract

Tinbergen suggested there are four major aims or questions in ethology. All of these contribute to the larger single question of why animals behave as they do. Here, I emphasise one aim, to understand the evolution of behaviour. Using studies of sexual communication in túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) I attempt to illustrate how an analysis of the past evolution of behaviour can contribute to our understanding of its current function and the details of the mechanisms guiding it. I argue that integration of Tinbergen's four questions not only give us a more complete understanding of the biology of behaviour, it might be necessary to give us a correct understanding.

In: Animal Biology
Editor: Michael A. Ryan
The final book of the New Testament, the Apocalypse, has been controversial since its initial appearance during the first century A.D. For centuries after, theologians, exegetes, scholars, and preachers have grappled with the imagery and symbolism behind this fascinating and terrifying book. Their thoughts and ideas regarding the apocalypse—and its trials and tribulations—were received within both elite and popular culture in the medieval and early modern eras. Therefore, one may rightly call the Apocalypse, and its accompanying hopes and fears, a foundational pillar of Western Civilization. The interest in the Apocalypse, and apocalyptic movements, continues apace in modern scholarship and society alike. This present volume, A Companion to the Premodern Apocalypse, collates essays from specialists in the study of premodern apocalyptic subjects. It is designed to orient undergraduate and graduate students, as well as more established scholars, to the state of the field of premodern apocalyptic studies as well as to point them in future directions for their scholarship and/or pedagogy.

Contributors are: Roland Betancourt, Robert Boenig, Richard K. Emmerson, Ernst Hintz, László Hubbes, Hiram Kümper, Natalie Latteri, Thomas Long, Katherine Olson, Kevin Poole, Matthias Riedl, Michael A. Ryan
In: Medieval Encounters
In: A Companion to the Great Western Schism (1378-1417)
In: A Companion to the Premodern Apocalypse
In: A Companion to the Premodern Apocalypse
In: A Companion to the Premodern Apocalypse

Abstract

Females of many species receive male attention that reflects a conflict between the sexes over reproduction. Here we demonstrate that female sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) suffer such a cost via a reduction of their feeding time in the presence of males. Female sailfin mollies spend significantly more time feeding when accompanied by an Amazon molly (P.formosa) or a sailfin molly female than when accompanied by a male sailfin molly. Furthermore, we show that male sexual harassment is size dependent and that small males impose a greater cost on females.

In: Behaviour

Abstract

We report two independent cases of female preferences for novel male traits in two species of poeciliid fish, Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana. In both cases the preference predates the occurrence of the trait, lending strong support to the pre-existing bias hypotheses. This support is independent of the assumptions associated with phylogenetic inference. Unlike the two sexual species, the unisexual hybrid P. formosa had no detectable preference for the novel male traits.

In: Behaviour