This article calls for a nuanced reappraisal of the talents of Gerard of Cremona, the most prolific of the so-called "Toledan Translators" of the twelfth century. By carefully examining his translation of a wide-ranging text of al-Farabi and comparing it with the translation made by Dominicus Gundisalvus a tentative evaluation of his knowledge of specific content areas, of Islamic culture, and his skill and practices as a translator is put forth as a contribution to the increasingly sophisticated understanding of this important epoch in medieval intellectual history.
In the People's Republic of China, minority nationality peoples have the same formal rights as Han Chinese. However, in Xinjiang, the modernisation project is taking precedence over ethnic harmony as recruitment practices are increasingly disadvantaging the Uyghurs, despite earlier affirmative action policies. Ethnographic and survey research among Urumqi's floating population indicates that Uyghurs are excluded from certain sectors, earn lower incomes and reside in poorer accommodation than Han Chinese, from whom they remain spatially and socially segregated. As the state increasingly relies on the invisible hand of the market, so the commodification of labour relations and property is amplifying social rifts between nationalities. Uneven regional development prompts Han people to migrate into Xinjiang and Uyghurs to migrate to the cities within Xinjiang, bringing these two ethnic groups into competition within a labour market. This has resulted in an ethnic division of labour that exacerbates inter- and intra-ethnic tensions.
Carbon (dioxide) capture and storage (ccs) is one of the solutions for decarbonising society whereby CO2 is captured, transported, and injected into geological formations. It can be transported to offshore locations through pipelines or ships. Which method provides for a better deal for investors depends to an extent on the financial risk associated with these two methods, which in turn is linked with exposure to liability. This paper compares the potential liability arising from the carriage of CO2 by ships and by pipelines in the uk offshore context. The two modes of transport are governed by significantly different regimes, even though they concern the same material. It is argued that the transport of CO2 by ships and by pipelines poses similar risks and therefore they should have a similar liability regime. This would afford pipeline operators the economic advantages available to shipowners and incentivise investment in the transport phase of ccs.