Science educators have come to recognize children’s reasoning and problem solving skills as crucial ingredients of scientific literacy. As a consequence, there has been a concurrent, widespread emphasis on argumentation as a way of developing critical and creative minds. Argumentation has been of increasing interest in science education as a means of actively involving students in science and, thereby, as a means of promoting their learning, reasoning, and problem solving. Many approaches to teaching argumentation place primacy on teaching the structure of the argumentative genre prior to and at the beginning of participating in argumentation. Such an approach, however, is unlikely to succeed because to meaningfully learn the structure (grammar) of argumentation, one already needs to be competent in argumentation. This book offers a different approach to children’s argumentation and reasoning based on dialogical relations, as the origin of internal dialogue (inner speech) and higher psychological functions. In this approach, argumentation first exists as dialogical relation, for participants who are in a dialogical relation with others, and who employ argumentation for the purpose of the dialogical relation. With the multimodality of dialogue, this approach expands argumentation into another level of physicality of thinking, reasoning, and problem solving in classrooms. By using empirical data from elementary classrooms, this book explains how argumentation emerges and develops in and from classroom interactions by focusing on thinking and reasoning through/in relations with others and the learning environment.
In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development
In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development
In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development
Authors: Mijung Kim and Hoe Teck Tan

Environmental issues are complex and cannot be understood by one sole discipline or technique of science. The ability to collaborate in an interdisciplinary context does not arise all by itself, but may be developed through educational strategies. The purpose of the study was to provide students the opportunity to collaborate, to solve an environmental task, and determine how they share their knowledge and communication to solve the task. Sixteen secondary school grade two (age 14) and 16 Junior College grade one students (age 17) from public schools in Singapore participated. Participants collaborated in groups to collect data and analyze them to build an eco-village in Kahang, Malaysia. Communication, integration of knowledge with all members in the group and decision-making was necessary to solve the task. Discussions and fieldwork were video recorded and transcribed. Participants’ reflection notes were also collected. Data from video recording and students’ reflection were coded and thematized. Based on the findings, this study highlighted the importance of knowledge integration and decisionmaking and the development of responsibility, communication skills and leadership in science learning. The research study was mainly descriptive and qualitative in nature.

In: Biology Education for Social and Sustainable Development
In: Dialogical Argumentation and Reasoning in Elementary Science Classrooms
In: Dialogical Argumentation and Reasoning in Elementary Science Classrooms
In: Dialogical Argumentation and Reasoning in Elementary Science Classrooms