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In: "From a Sacred Source"
In: Jews, Christians and Muslims in Medieval and Early Modern Times
In: Jews, Christians and Muslims in Medieval and Early Modern Times
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The term dhimmah (Arab.; “protection”) was used to denote the theological, legal, and social status granted by Islamic sovereigns to members of other revealed religions, like Jews and Christians, under their rule to guarantee them protection and autonomy. The concept of dhimmah can be traced to Islamic theology (Kalām), which locates Islam within a continuum of prophetic revelation with the older monotheistic religions, thus allowing a place, albeit subordinate, for these religions. Politically and legally, the concept of dhimmah took the form of a catalogue of rights in the Covenant of ‘Umar. In the modern era and under Western influence, the concept of dhimmah transitioned to a modern understanding of the status of non-Muslim population groups.

in Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Cultures Online
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Ramla (Ramleh; Ar. al-Ramla), a town near Jerusalem built by the Umayyads in the eighth century, was the capital of the province of Palestine. Its Jewish community was affiliated with the Yeshiva of Palestine, but a faction attempted to establish connections with Babylonian yeshivot. Ramla was a pilgrimage station and a center of book copying.

in Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online
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Karīma bint ʿAmmār, known as Al-Wuḥsha al-Dallāla, was a wealthy Jewish businesswoman in Fustat at the end of the eleventh century. She conducted wide-ranging business ventures and also acted as a pawnbroker. Her stormy biography, reconstructed from several Geniza documents, reveals an independent and assertive woman deeply involved in the social and economic life of the Jewish community.

in Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World Online