Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mona Siddiqui x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
Author:

Beating with a rod or whip. Flogging (jaldjald ii, 214a iv, 584a ) is a common punishment in Islamic law (see chastisement and punishment; law and the qurʾān), prescribed both as a ḥadd (i.e. divinely sanctioned) and as a taʿzīrtaʿzīr ii, 214a ii, 215a penalty (i.e. at the judge's discretion; see prohibited degrees ). The Arabic term jald is from the root j-l-dj-l-d ii, 214a , meaning to flog, whip or lash and it appears in the Qurʾān in the form of a command (q.v.) against the culprits (ijlidū at q 24:2 and ijlidūhum at q 24:4). Flogging is the ḥadd punishment prescribed in the Qurʾān for the crimes of fornication (zināʾ) and false accusation of fornication (qadhfqadhf ii, 214a ii, 214b ii, 344a iii, 153b v, 498a ). As a ḥadd penalty, it is a claim of God (ḥaqq Allāhḥaqq allāh ii, 214a ) which implies that it cannot be pardoned but rather must be implemented by the ruler (see kings and rulers ). For the offence of zināʾ, the punishment according to q 24:2 is one hundred lashes for the free, unmarried Muslim and fifty lashes for the slave (see slaves and slavery ). This is considered to be the final verse to be revealed concerning the crime of zināʾ, after the earlier q 4:15 which refers to the adulteress being confined in her family's house until her death (see death and the dead ) or until another piece of divine legislation came into force (see adultery and fornication; abrogation). For the married person, the punishment of stoning (q.v.) as prescribed in the sunna (q.v.) of the Prophet became the majority opinion. Jurists, however, are divided as to whether the unmarried culprit is to be banished for one year after flogging and whether the married culprit is to be flogged before stoning (Tabrīzī, Mischcat-ul-Masabih, ii, 182-90).

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online
Author:

Device that creates separation or privacy. The concept of veiling associated with a woman covering her body (see nudity ) appears in no definitive terms in the Qurʾān. Instead the Qurʾān contains various verses (q.v.) in which the wordḥijāb literally a “screen, curtain,” from the root ḥ-j-b, meaning to cover or screen, is used to refer to a sense of separation, protection and covering that has both concrete and metaphorical connotations (see metaphor ). Ḥijāb has, however, evolved in meaning and is most commonly used to denote the idea of a Muslim woman's veil, either full or partial, and more generally to denote a level of segregation between the sexes (see gender; women and the qurʾān). The word appears seven times in the Qurʾān (according to the traditional chronological sequence of revelation, q 19:17; 38:32; 17:45; 41:5; 42:51; 7:46; 33:53; see chronology and the qurʾān ) and has a common semantic theme of separation (Stowasser, Women, 168), albeit not primarily between the sexes. In q 19:17, Mary (q.v.) withdraws from her family and “places a screen (ḥijāb) [to screen herself] from them.” In q 17:45, when the believers (see belief and unbelief ) recite the Qurʾān (see recitation of the qurʾān ), God “places a thick/invisible veil (ḥijāban mastran) between them and those who do not believe in the hereafter” (see eschatology ). Similarly, in q 41:5, those who do not wish to listen to or accept Muḥammad's message say that there is a distance, ḥijāb, between them and the Prophet (see opposition to muḥammad ). In q 7:46, for those people who deliberately lead others astray (q.v.) from God's path (see path or way ) or do not believe in the hereafter, “there will be a veil/screen (ḥijāb) between them and… those who know” (see knowledge and learning ). In q 42:51, God claims that he sends revelation to humankind in one of three ways: inspiration (see revelation and inspiration ), messengers (see messenger; prophets and prophethood) or from behind a veil/curtain (min warāʾi ḥijāb,). Commentators (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ) have drawn on traditions from Muslim's (d. ca. 261/875) ḥadīth collection (see ḥadīth and the qurʾān ) to the effect that this veil refers to a veil of light. In these verses, ḥijāb carries various metaphorical levels of meaning, specifically as something that separates truth (q.v.) from falsehood (see lie ) and light (q.v.) from dark (see darkness ). This idea has been elaborated significantly by the mystics (see ṣūfism and the qurʾān ) who see ḥijāb as the curtain or barrier (q.v.) that lies between them and God, the object of their devotion.

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online
Author:

A woman whose husband has died. The Qurʾān speaks of the widow by addressing the male believers in q 2:234-5 (see belief and unbelief ), who die leaving behind wives (yadharūna azwājan). The term itself has no Arabic equivalent in the Qurʾān though it is implied in the status of the thayyibātthayyibāt v, 480a v, 480b in q 66:5, which refers to any woman who is not a virgin (see chastity; abstinence), a woman who has had sexual intercourse (see sex and sexuality ) either as a previously married woman, a divorced woman (see marriage and divorce ) or a widow. In this particular verse, the wives of the Prophet (q.v.) are admonished for their jealousies and told that they could be replaced by other women (see women and the qurʾān ). There follows a long list of desirable virtues (see virtue; virtues and vices, commanding and forbidding) with the words thayyibātin and abkāran,virgins, at the end of the verse. The juxtaposition of the two words signifies that these qualities could belong to both sorts of women, “the women who are deflowered and whose virginity has gone and the virgins” (Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, ad loc.).

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online