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Muhammad Masum Billah

This article discusses the meaning of ribā according to the opinions upheld by both the majority as well as minority of Islamic scholars. Although Islamic scholars are in agreement about the prohibition of ribā, they do differ with regard to its meaning. This divergence of opinions translates into such questions as whether the interest charged and paid by today’s conventional banks is ribā. While the majority of Islamic scholars are of the opinion that current bank interest is ribā, a small but convincing minority of scholars do not consider bank interest to be ribā. The need for Islamic banks arises from the majority’s interpretation of ribā. This article also evaluates the most popular products provided by Islamic banks and the validity of ḥiyal (pl. of ḥīlah) involved in adopting them.

Muhammad Masum Billah

Abstract

To address the problem of cybercrimes and related issues, Oman has adopted two new pieces of legislation, the Electronic Transactions Law (etl) and the Cybercrime Law. Of the two, the etl, enacted in 2008, is the older one. It addresses only some cybercrimes, in particular, the ‘target cybercrimes’ in its last chapter. In 2011, Oman enacted the Cybercrime Law to specifically address cases of cybercrime. The law covers almost every type of target cybercrime and some tool cybercrimes. This article analyses the concept of cybercrime and whether Omani law addresses all such crimes. In evaluating the Omani cybercrime laws and the challenges cybercrime brings, the article uses the United Nation’s Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime (2013) as the standard of reference for comparison.