Bursaphelenchus parantoniae n. sp. isolated in Ningbo, China, from packaging wood made of Pinus sp. imported from Belgium, is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a = 32.6-51), lateral field with two lines, excretory pore located ca one metacorpal length posterior to median bulb, spicules stout and arcuate with triangular rostrum and flattened cucullus, and seven caudal papillae arranged as a single midventral precloacal papilla, one adcloacal pair and two postcloacal pairs. The vagina is inclined anteriorly, a vulval flap is present, the post-uterine branch extends for more than half of the vulva-anus distance, and the female tail is conical with a hyaline region and bluntly rounded terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that B. parantoniae n. sp. clusters with the hylobianum-group and appears close to B. antoniae, B. chengi, B. hylobianum and B. niphades. The new species is distinguished from these species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and molecular characters.
Bursaphelenchus decraemerae n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from packaging wood made of Pinus sp. imported from the USA, is described. It is characterised by the lateral field with three lines, a stylet 10-12 μm long with small basal swellings, excretory pore located 4-12 μm posterior to median bulb, spicule small, ventrally arcuate with lamina gradually tapering to distal tip, rostrum triangular pointed to conical, condylus elongated with bluntly rounded tip, and cucullus minute, barely visible. There are seven caudal papillae arranged as a single ventral precloacal papilla, one adcloacal pair and two postcloacal pairs. The bursal flap is narrow and oval. A small vulval flap is present in lateral view of the female and the tail is conical, strongly ventrally curved with the terminus finely pointed and sometimes appearing like a mucron. The new species is characterised by morphological and molecular analysis and is close to B. gerberae and B. sakishimanus.
Sheathoid nematodes of the genus Hemicriconemoides are migratory root-ectoparasites of many crops but damage is documented for only a few species. Hemicriconemoides paracamelliae sp. n., isolated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, from the rhizosphere of Cinninghamia lanceolata, is described together with H. kanayaensis and H. parataiwanensis. These three species are characterised morphologically and molecularly with important morphological details elucidated by SEM photographs. The new species can be characterised by the en face view having a dorsoventrally orientated oral disc with slit-like opening, and the labial plate being composed of two lateral semi-globular shaped projections on the lateral sides of the oral disc. This new species has the first lip annulus expanded and slightly wider than the second, stylet 83 (80-85) μm long, excretory pore located 5-6 annuli posterior to the base of the pharyngeal bulb, vulva slit-like, vulval flaps absent, spermatheca rounded to oblong-shaped, and anus located 5-8 annuli posterior to vulva. The tail is elongated, conoid, with the terminal annuli curving dorsally or ventrally to form a finely rounded tip. The study provides the first record of H. kanayaensis from mainland China, a new host association of H. parataiwanensis, and molecular sequencing data of the 18S, 28S D2-D3 and ITS sequences.
Bursaphelenchus rockyi n. sp., isolated in Peking, China, from peat moss imported from Russia, is described. It is characterised by a lateral field with four lines, excretory pore located at the base of the nerve ring or slightly posterior, spicule 15.9 (15.1-17.3) μm long along the chord and with high condylus and a rounded tip, rostrum triangular or conical with bluntly pointed tip, lamina curvature becoming more pronounced at 60% of total length, six caudal papillae with P3 and P4 adjacent to each other, bursa small, starting posterior to P4, vulval lips hemispherical and protruding, and tail conical with finely rounded or mucronated terminus. The new species belongs to the fungivorus-group and is most similar to B. arthuri, B. arthuroides, B. fungivorus and B. seani, but can be distinguished from related species by morphological and sequencing results.
Pseudaphelenchus zhoushanensis n. sp. was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii at Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. It is characterised by the small to medium length body, cuticle slightly annulated, presence of three lateral lines, stylet 9.0-10.7 μm with small but conspicuous basal knobs, excretory pore located from same level as the metacorpus to slightly anterior to metacorpus, true bursa surrounding entire tail but inconspicuous, male tail conical with a single mucron, spicule with distinct condylus and rostrum strongly arcuate to a pointed end, female tail conical with annulation, strongly ventrally bent in distal part of tail, with terminus bluntly pointed or finely mucronate. Phylogenetic analyses using sequences of the18S and 28S D2-D3 regions of rDNA confirmed the status of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. as a new species. Combining the molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphology and biology of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. and Tylaphelenchus jiaae indicates that T. jiaae is a member of Pseudaphelenchus to which it is herein transferred as P. jiaae n. comb. (= T. jiaae).
Bursaphelenchus parapinasteri is redescribed morphologically and with new molecular characterisation. It was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii on Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. Detailed morphology of the spicule, female gonad, hemizonid position, arrangement of male caudal papillae, and female tail terminus shape are documented. The ITS-RFLP patterns and the ITS1/2, partial 28S D2-D3 and partial 18S gene sequences were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. parapinasteri belongs to the hofmanni-group sensu Braasch and is close to B. anamurius, B. hofmanni, B. mazandaranense, B. paracorneolus, B. pinasteri and B. ulmophilus. A diagnostic key to species of the hofmanni-group is presented.
Ruehmaphelenchus quercophilus n. sp., isolated from a dying oak, Quercus robur, in the State Forests, Łopuchówko District, Poland, is described and figured. It is characterised by three lateral lines, relatively stout body, excretory pore posterior to nerve ring, five caudal papillae, spicules relatively small (12-14 μm) with weakly developed condylus and rostrum, bursa absent, vulva positioned at ca 78% of body length, vulval flap absent, post-uterine branch extending for slightly over half of vulva to anus distance, and conoid tail with a bend at the distal end forming a terminal projection 10-14 μm long. The new species is very similar to four other described species, namely R. formosanus, R. juliae, R. thailandae, and R. sirisus. Detailed phylogenetic analysis based on 18S, 28S D2-D3 and ITS sequences has confirmed the status of this nematode as a new species.
Radopholoides japonicus n. sp. isolated from rhizospheric soil samples associated with Podocarpus macrophyllus imported from Japan into Ningbo Port of China is described and illustrated. It is characterised by four lateral lines, lip region low, convex with three annuli. Stylet 16.5-18.5 μm long with anteriorly sloping rounded knobs. Excretory pore at the level of pharyngo-intestinal junction. Vulva posteriorly located, vulval lips not protruding, spermatheca squarish. Post-vulval uterine sac 35-44 μm long. Tail conoid with broadly rounded terminus, phasmid 6-8 annuli posterior to anus. Among five species of genus Radopholoides, the new species is close to R. antoni but can be differentiated from it by lip and tail morphology. This is the first Radopholoides species that provided detailed morphological and molecular characterisation. Maximum Likelihood analysis using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test for the validity of Radopholoides was performed and showed the validity of the genus using the partial 18S and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S.
Xiphinema hangzhouense sp. n. is described from the rhizosphere of Magnolia grandiflora in Hangzhou, China. The new species is characterised by having a monodelphic reproductive system, slim body, total stylet = 186-192 μm long and vulva located anteriorly at 27.6-31.2% of total body length. The new species has a gonad 400-450 μm long with a simple uterus and no Z-organ. The female tail is elongated conoid with a rounded terminus. The species has four juvenile stages and no male was found. The polytomous identification codes of X. hangzhouense sp. n. are A1, B4, C2, D23, E12, F2, G2, H2, I23, J2, K2, L1. The new species is morphologically similar to X. winotoi. Phylogenetic analyses of the 28S rRNA, ITS rRNA, 18S rRNA and partial COI gene sequences of X. hangzhouense sp. n. and some closely related Xiphinema species revealed that the new taxon clustered with high statistical support with X. radicicola and X. setariae.
Bursaphelenchusmoensi n. sp., isolated in Tianjin Port, China, from Pinus packaging wood imported from the USA, is described. It is characterised by a lateral field with three lines (two bands), stylet 13.0-14.9 μm long, excretory pore situated at same level as, or slightly posterior to, the nerve ring, spicules 13.0-15.5 μm long, mitten-shaped, condylus high and broad with squared, rounded or pointed end, rostrum triangular or conical with bluntly rounded tip, and cucullus absent, bursa small, starting posterior to P4, narrow oblong to irregular in shape and with an oval central projection, female vulval flap absent, and tail conical with a finely rounded or mucronate terminus. The new species belongs to the hofmanni-group and is most similar to B. paraparvispicularis, B. parvispicularis and B. wuae. It is distinguished from closely related species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and partial 18S, ITS and 28S D2-D3 rDNA gene sequencing results.