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In: African and Asian Studies
In: African and Asian Studies
Volume Editor: N'Dri Assié-Lumumba
Amidst the euphoria about the new frontiers of technology sometimes perceived as a panacea for expansion of higher education in developing countries, there is a need to analyze persistent and new grounds of unequal opportunity for access, learning, and the production of knowledge.
This volume addresses fundamental questions about the educational process such as:
· The use of technology in higher education for a holistic educational system for social development
· The actual technological capacity in Africa and possibilities for virtual higher education
· Cultural relevance of the curriculum and pedagogy
· Pedagogy and gender in cyberspace education
· Perils of externally-driven distance education programs in Africa and the quest for ownership towards development
· Challenges and opportunities in the making of knowledge society in an Asian context
· Strategies to promote constructive virtual higher education in Africa and Asia.

In their respective struggles for liberation the Asians and Africans, as oppressed people, joined forces in the first half of the 20th century by forming several pre-Bandung organizations. On the African side people of African descent, from the continent and the Diaspora, united to provide the leadership for substantive participation to the common African-Asian front that led to the Bandung conference of April 18-24 1955. The intelligentsia of African descent, including young students in Western Europe and the United States, played leadership roles in shaping the movements. Among them are W. E. B. Du Bois of the United States and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. In terms of the post-Bandung establishment of enduring legacies, it is worth indicating that the resolutions and some of their applications led to global coalitions including the Non-Aligned Movement and G77 within the United Nations. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary that was marked by the April 22-24 2005 Asian-African Summit held in Indonesia African and Asian leaders decided to rekindle the spirit of Bandung and renew their commitment to attain its goal through renewed cooperation between Asia and Africa in adopting the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP). Despite the continued challenges that African countries face in varying degrees, a regained confidence building on their assets, especially with different generations of people of the continent and historic and recent Diaspora, with it would be possible to build a global front toward the reaffirmation of global common humanity guided by the spirit of Bandung.

Open Access
In: Bandung
The WCCES is an international organization of comparative education societies worldwide and is an NGO in consultative partnership with UNESCO. The WCCES was created in 1970 to advance the field of comparative education. Members usually meet every three years for a World Congress in which scholars, researchers, and administrators interact with colleagues and counterparts from around the globe on international issues of education.
The WCCES also promotes research in various countries. Foci include theory and methods in comparative education, gender discourses in education, teacher education, education for peace and justice, education in post-conflict countries, language of instruction issues, Education for All. Such topics are usually represented in thematic groups organized for the World Congresses. Besides organizing the World Congresses, the WCCES has a section in CERCular, the newsletter of the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong, to keep individual societies and their members abreast of activities around the world.
The WCCES comprehensive website is
As a result of these efforts under the auspices of the global organization, WCCES and its member societies have become better organized and identified in terms of research and other scholarly activities. They are also more effective in viewing problems and applying skills from different perspectives, and in disseminating information. A major objective is advancement of education for international understanding in the interests of peace, intercultural cooperation, observance of human rights and mutual respect among peoples.
The WCCES Series was established to provide for the broader dissemination of discourses between scholars in its member societies. Representing as it does Societies and their members from all continents, the organization provides a special forum for the discussion of issues of interest and concern among comparativists and those working in international education. The first series of volumes was produced from the proceedings of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies XIII World Congress, which met in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3–7 September, 2007 with the theme of Living Together: Education and Intercultural Dialogue.

The first series included the following titles:
Volume 1: Tatto, M. & Mincu, M. (Eds.), Reforming Teaching and Learning
Volume 2: Geo JaJa, M. A. & Majhanovich, S. (Eds.), Education, Language and Economics: Growing National and Global Dilemmas
Volume 3: Pampanini, G., Adly, F. & Napier, D. (Eds.), Interculturalism, Society and Education
Volume 4: Masemann, V., Majhanovich, S., Truong, N., & Janigan, K. (Eds.), A Tribute to David N. Wilson: Clamoring for a Better World

The second series of volumes has been developed from the proceedings of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies XIV World Congress, which met in Istanbul, Turkey, 14–18 June, 2010 with the theme of Bordering, Re-Bordering and new Possibilities in Education and Society. This series includes the following titles, with further volumes under preparation:
Volume 1: Napier, D.B. & Majhanovich, S. (Eds.) Education, Dominance and Identity
Volume 2: Biseth, H. & Holmarsdottir, H. (Eds.) Human Rights in the Field of Comparative Education
Volume 3: Ginsburg, M. (Ed.) Preparation, Practice & and Politics of Teachers
Volume 4: Majhanovich, S. & Geo-JaJa, M.A. (Eds.) Economics, Aid and Education
Volume 5: Napier, D. B. (Ed.), Qualities of Education in a Globalised World

The third series of volumes has been developed from the proceedings of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies XV World Congress which met in Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 24-28, 2013 with the theme of New Times, New Voices. This series will include a number of volumes under preparation including:
Volume 1: Gross, Z. & Davies L. (Eds.) The Contested Role of Education in Conflict and Fragility
Volume 2: DePalma, R., Brook Napier, D. & Dze Ngwa, W. (Eds.) Revitalizing Minority Voices: Language Issues in the New Millennium
Volume 3: Majhanovich, S. & Malet, R. (Eds.) Building Democracy through Education on Diversity
Volume 4: Olson, J., Biseth, H. & Ruiz, G. (Eds.) Educational Internationalisation: Academic Voices and Public Policy
Volume 5: Acosta, F. & Nogueira, S. (Eds.) Rethinking Public Education Systems in the 21st Century Scenario: New and Renovated Challenges between Policies and Practices

It is a well-established historical fact that Africa and India have cultivated continuous connections for thousands of years. Exchanges of commodities produced on each side of the Indian Ocean in specific political, administrative, and geographic spaces have constituted the guiding thread of these relations. In the modern and contemporary periods, these relations have been shaped through European colonial establishments and their legacies in both sides. Past policies of forced migration and resettlement for economic exploitation of the British colonies in Africa, especially East and Southern Africa, became determinants of the Africa-India relations. The anti-colonial and decolonization struggles in Asia in general and specifically in India and Africa throughout the 20th century created opportunities for a new Africa-India cooperation. In these new relations, formal education, especially higher education, have been playing a prominent role. The thrust of this paper is to analyze the important role of higher education in a South-South cooperation framework between India and Africa as a continent or individual countries. The fluctuating or declining patterns of the number of African students pursuing their education in India in the past decade or so are analyzed.

In: African and Asian Studies


In the context of the increasing use of ICTs as a medium for higher education delivery across national borders, the World Bank established the Global Development Learning Network (GDLN). GDLN's official mission was to facilitate rapid and simultaneous dissemination of knowledge to audiences in various socio-geographic spaces and the expansion of the opportunity for tertiary education in developing countries. Using the case of Centre d'Education à Distance de Côte d'Ivoire, one of the GDLN national institutional affiliates in Africa, this study illustrates the agendas of liberalization and globalization through ICTs in spite of the potential for local educational gains.

In: Perspectives on Global Development and Technology
Chapter 14 Theorizing and Understanding the Evolving Gender Disparity in Educational Opportunity in Africa


In this chapter, N’Dri Assié-Lumumba discusses how access to the contemporary formal education, which was inherited from colonization has been characterized by statistics displaying persistent disparity in gender ratios. As she writes, an overwhelming majority of African countries have enrollment statistics showing under-representation of female populations, from the girl-child in preschool to the elementary/primary and secondary school to young women in the institutions of higher learning. This gender gap reflecting female under-representation tends to widen from the lower to the upper levels of the systems. Furthermore, Assié-Lumumba notes, there are significant gender-based disciplinary clusters of extreme lower representation of women in the fields of hard/natural sciences and technology studies. Interestingly and by some contrast, a few countries, most of which are located in Southern Africa and a handful of emerging cases in North and West Africa, the male population is under-represented even at the higher education level. With these realities, the author engages the conceptual and theoretical foundation of societal norms and rationality that have steered these gender disparities with a focus on different historical moments from colonial encounters to the present time.

In: Critical Theorizations of Education