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In a relatively short time the concept of “sustainable development” has become firmly established in the field of international law. The World Commission on Environment and Development concisely defined sustainable development as follows: “development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This definition takes into account the needs of both the present and future generations as well as the capacity of the earth and its natural resources which by clear implication should not be depleted by a small group of people (in industrialized countries).
The aim of this book is threefold : to review the genesis and to clarify the meaning of the concept of sustainable development, as well as to assess its status within public international law. Furthermore, it examines the legal principles that have emerged in the pursuit of sustainable development. Lastly, it assesses to what extent the actual evolution of law demonstrates the balance and integration with all pertinent fields of international law as urged by the Rio, Johannesburg, and World Summit documents. This is the second volume in the Hague Academy of International Law Pocket Book series; it contains the text of the course given at the Hague Academy by Professor Schrijver.

Cet ouvrage répond à trois objectifs : examiner la naissance du concept de développement durable, clarifier sa signification et évaluer son statut dans le droit international public. Il examine également les principes juridiques nés de la poursuite du développement durable. Enfin, il examine l’évolution actuelle du droit par rapport aux exigences énoncées à Rio, à Johannesburg et au cours du dernier sommet mondial en ce qui concerne l’intégration du concept de développement durable dans tous les domaines pertinents du droit international.
The concept of ‘sustainable development’ has attracted considerable attention in recent years and has become of pivotal importance, not only in scientific and political discourse but also, increasingly, in the practice of states and of relevant international organisations.
Since 1992 and within a remarkably short period of time, sustainable development has been endorsed and recognised in a number of instruments of international law. Thus, it is incorporated in various environmental treaties as well as in international fisheries agreements, the 1995 Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and EU law. Sustainable development and related concepts also feature in a number of international judicial decisions of the 1990s, for example those of the International Court of Justice and the WTO Appellate Body.
The chapters assembled in this book illustrate various aspects of efforts of policy makers, regional and national interest groups to invoke and rely upon international law for the realisation of the objective of sustainable development. They deal in particular with recent examples of the practice of states and of relevant international organisations, especially in such areas as international trade, foreign investment regulation, human rights and natural resources and waste management. Furthermore, some chapters are dedicated to a review of relevant practice at the regional and national level.
This book addresses the authority of the UN Security Council to regulate the use of force. In particular, it examines the question of whether the present composition, functions, and powers of the Security Council are adequate to meet recent demands, such as the need perceived by states to use force in cases of humanitarian emergency and pre-emptive action in response to international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Is the Security Council still well positioned today to deal with these demands and challenges? In seeking a response, the book analyzes both Charter law and Security Council practice. It addresses not only the hotly debated recent crises concerning Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, but also resolutions dealing with the use of force by peacekeeping operations. A number of issues relating to the right of self-defence are analyzed, as are the emerging new roles of NATO and the African Union. Separate chapters of the book are devoted to the current discussion concerning the reform of the Security Council. A particular feature of the book is the interaction between academics and practitioners as well as between theory and reality.
Conventional wisdom has it that the successful functioning of the UN Security Council almost completely depends on the role played by its five permanent members and the extent to which they can agree—or avoid to fundamentally disagree—on the many issues on the Council’s agenda. But the Council also consists of ten non-permanent or elected members who represent five different regions of the world, and who, though not vested with the right of veto, play an indispensable role in Council decision-making.

This book aims to take a closer look at that role. It considers what role is foreseen for the elected members in the UN Charter, how this evolved in practice, and what “tools” they can deploy. It also considers whether there are particular “niches” for the elected members on the Security Council, such as engaging in conflict prevention, taking initiatives on rule of law issues and debating the potential effects of climate change on peace and security. Can elected members serve as agents of the international community and norm entrepreneurs? Should their position be strengthened, and if so, how? This collection was born out of a dynamic research seminar held at Leiden University, which also drew on the experiences of former elected members. This book thus offers unique insights from both practice and scholarship, and is an indispensable tool for politicians, diplomats, academics and students alike.
Volume Editors: Niels M. Blokker and Nico J. Schrijver
Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization’s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants.

It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practitioners gave presentations and prepared written contributions that are collected in this book. This book is published to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the International Organizations Law Review, in which these contributions have also been published (Vol. 10, issue 2, 2014).
Essays in Honour of Kamal Hossain
This book celebrates Kamal Hossain’s lifelong and significant contribution to the development of international law and the cause of developing countries. It brings together an interview with Hossain by the editors, and thirteen essays written in his honour by scholars representing a wide spectrum of expertise in international law. The interview provides an introduction to the rich and varied life of a statesman, a drafter of his country’s constitution, and an acclaimed constitutional and international lawyer. The subjects covered in the essays include the new international economic order (NIEO), human rights, counter-terrorism, climate change, oil and gas law, arbitration, law of the sea, international trade law and judicial reform. These essays offer important perspectives on the issues addressed.
Leiden Studies on the Frontiers of International Law is a new forum for innovative scholarship in public international law and its specialized fields, published under the auspices of the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies of Leiden University. The series accommodates monographs and collaborative volumes on a wide range of contemporary themes of international law, including critical and interdisciplinary perspectives on the foundations, challenges and limits of the global legal order and the interaction of legal systems.