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Nicole Grégoire

Abstract

Drawing on a social movement theoretical framework, the paper explores the collective action desires and attempts expressed within the African associational milieu in Belgium to improve the social, economic and political being of the African-rooted people in Belgium. It thus focuses on the emergence of non-profit organisations aiming at mobilising people of sub-Saharan African descent under a common ‘Pan-African’ banner. It analyses the link between the context for the emergence of these associations ‐ in which the state played an important role ‐ their working modes and their members’ affiliation strategies, as a way to address a ‘lack of mobilisation’ frequently deplored by many African associational leaders. Secondly, it shows how a certain African elite tries to go beyond old rivalries and previous failures, by shaping a Pan-African community, symbolically located both in the African life ‘here’ (in Belgium and by extension Europe) and ‘there’ (in Africa).

Césarine Bolya Sinatu, Marie Godin and Nicole Grégoire

Résumé

A partir d’une situation d’interpellation parlementaire mettant en scène une tribune de femmes d’origine congolaise dénonçant la situation de guerre et de violence sévissant à l’Est du Congo, cet article se penche sur la présence croissante de femmes d’origine congolaise dans l’espace public belge. Tout d’abord, l’article met en relation l’histoire de l’évolution des rapports sociaux de sexe au Congo et la socialisation politique de certaines femmes d’origine congolaise dans l’espace public belge à travers notamment le développement d’un tissu associatif congolais particulièrement féminisé. Ensuite, le cadre dans lequel la dénonciation faite par les femmes prend place est analysé par le biais d’un outillage théorique innovant, articulant des concepts de la sociologie pragmatique (Boltanski et al. 1984; Boltanski et al. 2007) et de la théorie des mouvements sociaux (Snow et al. 1986). L’analyse montre que les rapports postcoloniaux belges peuvent donner lieu, dans l’espace public, à des situations d’interaction paradoxales où l’histoire coloniale, alors qu’elle sous-tend l’ensemble des échanges, doit être gardée sous silence sous peine de grever la légitimité et la cohérence de la prise de parole en public. Cette stratégie d’évitement du cadre postcolonial permet aux femmes de faire entendre leurs voix.

Nick Berkvens, Lieven Waeyenberge, Hans Casteels, Nancy de Sutter, Maria Lurdes Inácio, Ana Margarida Fontes, Celia Boone, Jean-Claude Grégoire and Nicole Viaene

The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes pine wilt disease and is transmitted by Monochamus beetles. An efficient trapping system for these organisms is essential for their early detection in threatened regions. A wet catching method, using monoethylene glycol (MEG) in a collecting cup to preserve captured insects, was suitable for catching longhorn beetles. As a second step in developing this technique, we studied the influence of MEG on nematode detection. When M. galloprovincialis carrying PWN were submerged in MEG, nematodes died within 24 h. The preservative altered certain morphological features of nematodes immersed in solutions of 10, 30 or 60% MEG, impeding their morphological identification. However, molecular identification was possible as long as the MEG concentration was below 70%. At higher concentrations, a rinsing step with water before DNA extraction was enough to allow molecular detection. Wet trapping requires less frequent monitoring than dry trapping, thus reducing maintenance and related costs.