Hydrocarbon accumulations straddle international boundaries and maritime zones. Historically states dealt with this reality by negotiating unity-of-deposit clauses in maritime delimitation agreements, followed by specific agreements upon the discovery of a straddling deposit. A more recent trend is to negotiate framework agreements which are designed to put in place a set of procedures for dealing with the discovery and exploitation of transboundary hydrocarbon resources. This paper examines selected aspects of five recent framework agreements.
This article examines land claim agreements in Arctic Canada in light of international human rights norms, in particular the ICCPR, the CERD Convention, ILO 169 and the Inter-American human rights instruments and practice. The paper concludes that some of the provisions of land claim agreements are inconsistent with these norms. The paper also argues that land claim agreements should be based on the legal duty to recognise, delimit and title traditional occupation lands.