Unemployment is the major barrier hindering constructive individualization in European societies. The upgrading of the employability of unemployed is an efficient mechanism for reducing destructive impacts of unemployment on individuals and society. The upgrading can be achieved both on the “supply” and the “demand” side of the labor market. How can the upgrading of employability of unemployed be facilitated in order to increase their chances for constructive individualization in working life? A comprehensive answer requires concept development, operationalization of concepts and testing of results. In the article the process is exemplified by references to active labor market policies in Austria and Slovenia. The analysis of similarities and differences between the cases leads to the identification of promising approaches to upgrading the employability of unemployed.
This paper aims at explaining changes in the conditions for individualization in ten central and eastern European (cee) countries after they have joined the European Union in 2004 and 2007. The expected changes had to follow the transfer of the eu’s acquis communautaire to the cee and the accompanying Europeanization understood as upgrading of governance. Indicators used in longitudinal studies are identified in order to test the assumption. Synchronic and diachronic comparison of outcomes of studies on the topic is carried out. The results don’t support the hypothesis about relevant changes in the conditions of individualization in the cee countries due to their Europeanization. The upgrading of governance quality affects the individualization in the old and new eu member states similarly. Declining quality of the conditions for individualization appears in both groups of countries with the same frequency and intensity too.