Normative Predicaments and Functional Imperatives
Author: Noé Cornago
In Plural Diplomacies: Normative Predicaments and Functional Imperatives Noé Cornago asserts the need to restore the long-interrupted continuity between the relevance of diplomacy as raison de système - in a world which is much more than a world of States - and its unique value as a way to mediate the many alienations experienced by individuals and social groups. The book contends that an incursion beyond conventional understanding of diplomatic studies, into fields of knowledge such as social studies of science, psychology, critical sociology of law, or conceptual history, offers expanded potential within the field by addressing the modern complexities of global life. With particular attention to the semantics of diplomacy, pluralization of diplomacy, diplomacy within states, commodity diplomacy, and finally, antidiplomacy, 'PluralDiplomacies: Normative Predicaments and Functional Imperatives' offers a new vision of diplomacy for the twenty-first century.
Author: Noé Cornago

Against conventional approaches that tend to minimize the importance of sub-state diplomacy, this article argues that this reality is presently undergoing a process of legal and political normalization throughout the world and deserves greater attention from both diplomatic practitioners and experts. This process, which is embedded in wider structural transformations, is driven simultaneously by two competing forces that are present in virtually all states: first, international mobilization of sub-state governments themselves, since they increasingly pursue relevant political objectives in the international field through their own methods and instruments; and second, the various attempts to limit and control that activism deployed by central governments through various legal and political instruments. After a brief discussion on the notion of normalization in critical social theory and its validity for diplomatic studies, this article examines the normalization of sub-state diplomacy through four, closely interconnected conceptual lenses: normalization as generalization; normalization as regionalization; normalization as reflective adaptation; and, finally, normalization as contentious regulation. Normalization enables the diplomatic system to operate in an increasingly complex environment while simultaneously affirming its own hierarchical structure. The limits of that normalization process, as well as its wider implications for diplomatic theory and practice, are also discussed.

In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies
In: Plural Diplomacies