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Author: Gayane Novikova

The April 2016 four-day “war” in the area of the Nagorny Karabakh conflict, as well as the developments that followed, have unveiled a whole stratum of serious problems in “stable” Armenia, including ones relating to defence issues. The aftermath of these events will continue to strongly influence internal processes in all three state entities: Armenia, the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Azerbaijan. This article aims to analyse some long-term consequences of the 2–5 April 2016 events in terms of their influence on Armenian internal political and social developments. The political transformations ongoing currently in Armenia can be best described as a “palace coup d’état”: they have been initiated by a ruling elite which benefited from general population’s low levels of public participation and social mobilization. In the absence of a charismatic leader and strong leadership in general, a tangible programme of action, or unity among the different components of civil society, the ruling elite retains the capacity to influence the varying reconstitution of groups and to alleviate, through small-scale concessions, tensions in Armenian society.

In: Caucasus Survey
In: Review of Central and East European Law

Separate extension of fingers in the hand of primates is performed by 3 muscles: m. extensor pollicis longus, m. extensor digiti secundi, and m. extensor digitorum lateralis. Here it is proposed to consider them as parts of the extensor digitorum profundus muscular complex. The diversity in structure of these muscles in primates is examined based both on original anatomical study of New World monkeys and analysis of extensive published data on primates from different taxonomic groups. It is shown that in these muscles there are 2 main types of structure variations - the division of the muscle belly into several heads which give rise to separate tendons, and the split of the single terminal tendon into several branches. The first type of modification ensures the possibility of a separate management of the fingers, and the second, on the contrary, ensures the coupled control of extension of fingers. A scheme of evolutionary transformations of muscles belonging to the complex of the deep extensors of fingers is proposed.

In: Folia Primatologica