Author: Olav Hackstein

The present article examines the attenuation and conversion of outer and inner negations under interrogative scope (interrogative negation). Interrogative scope over outer and inner negations triggers network processes at the interface of syntax, semantics and pragmatics, which may in the long run result in the bleaching of their negating function. This explains the crosslinguistically frequent homophony of negations with non-negating particles, conjunctions and complementizers. I discuss four mechanisms, the Asking > Calling-into-Question Implicature (§§ 2, 3), the Asking-for-Confirmation Implicature (§§ 2, 3), the Affirmative-Negative Equivalence under Disjunction (§ 4), and the Litotes Effect (§ 5).

In: Indo-European Linguistics
Author: Olav Hackstein

Under a formal and functional reconstruction, the form and semantics of Old High German huuanta and Dutch want receive an explanation for the first time. Both conjunctions, together with Latin unde and Tocharian B ente, A äntā(ne), descend from PIE interrogative-relative *k w o-m-d h eh 1, *k w o-m-d h oh 1, *k w o-m-d h ah 2 ‘whence, where’, whose semantics may be compositionally analyzed as ablatival-instrumental *k w o-m plus locatival-directional *-d h o(h 1 ), *-d h a(h 2 ). The novel equation of Old High German huuanta, Dutch want with Latin unde and Tocharian B ente, A äntā(ne) sheds light on a number of phonological and syntactic questions, including the merger of PIE *-nd- and *-nd h- in Latin and Tocharian (§ 2.1) and the non-affrication of *-nd- in Tocharian (§ 3.1.2). Another consequence is that a case can be made for clause-initial aphaeresis which triggered the loss of the labiovelar onsets in unde and ente/äntā(ne), thus pointing to the existence of wh-movement and clause-initial wh-words in both Latin and Tocharian (§ 3.1.1).

In: Indo-European Linguistics
This series offers a new venue for high-quality original studies in Indo-European linguistics, from both a comparative and historical perspective, including relevant works on the prehistory/early history of the oldest descendant languages. It will also welcome studies in poetics and comparative mythology that include a significant linguistic and philological component. It seeks especially to fulfill the unmet need for analyses that employ innovative approaches and take account of the latest developments in general linguistic models and methods. The scope of the series is avowedly international, but authors are encouraged to write in English to maximize dissemination of their ideas.

In Language and Meter, Dieter Gunkel and Olav Hackstein unite fifteen linguistic studies on a variety of poetic traditions, including the Homeric epics, the hieratic hymns of the Ṛgveda, the Gathas of the Avesta, early Latin and the Sabellic compositions, Germanic alliterative verse, Insular Celtic court poetry, and Tocharian metrical texts. The studies treat a broad range of topics, including the prehistory of the hexameter, the nature of Homeric formulae, the structure of Vedic verse, rhythm in the Gathas, and the relationship between Germanic and Celtic poetic traditions. The volume contributes to our understanding of the relationship between language and poetic form, and how they change over time.
In: Language and Meter