Three new species of fossil aphids are described from Canadian amber, age the Upper Cretaceous, viz. Longiradius foottitti n. gen. et n. sp., which has been referred to Palaeoaphididae, Canaphis albertensis n. gen. et n. sp. and Aphidinius constrictus n. gen. et n. sp., which have been impossible to place in any known family. Furthermore more material of Mesozoicaphis canadensis Heie, belonging to the extinct family Mesozoicaphididae, are described. At least 32 specimens of Mesozoicaphis spp. occur in the material, often more than two in the same piece of amber, making it highly probable that their host plant was the resin-producing gymnosperm. Eight new species of fossil aphids with 16 specimens are described from clay shales in Nevada, age the Middle Miocene, viz. Palaeogreenidea rittae n. gen. et n. sp. belonging to the family Greenideidae, Similidrepan pulawskii n. gen. et n. sp., Nevaphis nevadensis n. gen. et n. sp. and Americaphis longipes n. gen. et n. sp., which have placed in Drepanosiphidae, Lachnarius miocaenicus n. gen. et n. sp., which belongs to Lachnidae, and Eriosaphis leei gen. et n. sp., Eriosomaphis jesperi n. gen. et n. sp. and Eriosomaphis occidentalis n. sp., which have been placed in Eriosomatidae (= Pemphigidae).
Redescriptions and notes on systematic position of six little known Tertiary aphids are given, viz. (I) Anconatus gillettei Cockerell, which is placed in Siphonophoroides Buckton, (2) Echinaphis rohweri Cockerell, which may be placed in the system near the common base of Greenideidae and Callaphididae, (3) Schizoneurites brevirostris Cockerell, which is allied with Antiquaphis Heie, (4) Tetraneura oligocenica N. Theobald, which is placed in Aixaphis nov. gen. among Aphidoidea viviovipara incertae sedis, (5) Tetraneura provincialis N. Theobald, whose belonging in Pemphigidae is doubtful, and (6) Schizoneura meunieri Heie (syn. S. patchi Meunier), which really may be a Schizoneura, but only a few morphological characters are known.
Among 210 fossil specimens of alate aphids from tuff layers at the Bol'shaya Svedlovodnaya River, Maritime Province, USSR, age probably Late Oligocene, in the collection of the Palaeontological Institute, Moscow, representatives of Anoeciidae, Pemphigidae, Mindaridae and Elektraphididae have been found. A species of each of these families is described: Bolshayanoecia rasnitsyni sp.n. and gen.n., Biamoaphis antiqua sp.n. and gen.n., Mindarella biamoensissp.n. and gen.n. and Schizoneurites zherichini sp.n. Most specimens show so few characters that it has been impossible to place them into families with certainty. Hormaphididae and Drepanosiphidae are perhaps present. Aphididae, Lachnidae and Greenideidae are apparently absent. So the composition of the aphid fauna is not essentially different from other faunas in known deposits from Early Tertiary except for the relative prevalence of Anoeciidae.
The fossil aphid Schizoneurites obliquus n.sp. from the Copenhagen collection of Baltic amber insects is described; the presence of one oblique vein in the hind wing separates it from the six previously described species of this genus, Schizoneurites Cockerell, 1915, of which Antiquaphis Heie, 1967, and Elektraphis Steffan, 1968, are synonyms. A new diagnosis of the genus and a key to the species are given. In specimens of S. robustus (Heie, 1967) and S. fossilis (Heie, 1967) occurring among the other Baltic amber insects recently acquired by the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, structures resembling the rhinaria in Adelges Vallot are visible on the three terminal antennal segments, confirming the view held by Steffan (1968) that the group belongs in the Aphidina ovipara. The rhinaria, which have not been seen before, also shows that Schizoneurites, the only genus within the family Elektraphididae Steffan, 1968, together with the Adelgidae, forms a group, of which the Phylloxeridae is the sister group. The synapomorphies of the Elektraphididae and Phylloxeridae are explained as results of convergent or parallel evolution.
Studies of material of Betlllaphis brevipilosa Börner, 1940, collected by Börner in 1939 and believed to be syntypes, have shown that the species called brevipilosa by Börner is the same taxon as B. quadrituberculata subsp. helvetica Hille Ris Lambers, 1947, later given species rank as B. helvetica. The latter name is a junior synonym of brevipilosa. A lectotype has been selected. The other specimens have been labelled paralectotypes.
Nasonovia (Kakimia) stroyani n.sp. from the Pacific states of USA is described. The host plants are Tellima and Boykinia (Saxifragaceae). The species is closely related to N. (K.) cynosbati (Oestlund), but differs by having apterous males. Keys to apterous and alate viviparous females of the new species and various populations of N. (K.) cynosbati are given.
A fossil specimen of Longistigma caryae (Harris) has been found in tuff from Iceland, locality: Hrútagíl i Mókollsdal in northwestern Iceland, age: Upper Miocene or Lower Pliocene. In the present time the species lives exclusively in the region of the Eastern Deciduous Forests of North America on several genera of deciduous trees, a.o. Carya and Fagus. The find certifies paleobotanical evidence indicating that Iceland once belonged in the region of deciduous forests with a flora more like the modern eastern North American flora than any other modern flora region. The recent aphid fauna of Iceland contains only palaearctic, holarctic, cosmopolitic, and endemic species and species common with Greenland and arctic Canada.