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  • Author or Editor: Olli-Pekka Vainio x
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The Development of the Lutheran Doctrine of Justification from Luther to the Formula of Concord (1580)
The unity of the early Lutheran reformation, even in the central themes such as justification, is still an open question. This study examines the development of the doctrine of justification in the works of the prominent first and second generation Lutheran reformers from the viewpoints of divine participation and effectivity of justification. Generally, Luther’s idea of Christ’s real presence in the believer as the central part of justification is maintained and taught by all Reformers while they simultaneously develop various theological frameworks to depict the nature of participation. However, in some cases these developed models are contradictory, which causes tension between theologians resulting in the invention of new doctrinal formulations.

This article provides more accurate tools to engage the public nature of religious and other ideological claims by proposing a distinction between belief-policies, beliefs and practices that could enable more acute ways of locating the aspects of ideology that are considered problematic in a given situation. In addition, the article proposes rules of engagement for how we might deal with these aspects in public discourse.

In: International Journal of Public Theology