Osamu Sawada


This paper investigates the interpretations of the embedded expressive motto in Japanese. I argue that the expressive motto which is embedded under an attitude predicate can be speaker-oriented only when there is a deontic modal in the main clause and that there is a shift from a conventional implicature (CI) to a secondary at-issue entailment at a clausal level if the embedded motto is subject-oriented. This paper also examines cases where the expressive motto and another expressive (e.g., honorific/diminutive/pejorative) are embedded and claims that, unlike Zazaki indexicals (Anand & Nevins 2004), expressives do not always shift together.