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Otto Zwartjes


Edited by Otto Zwartjes

La conquista y la colonización del Nuevo Mundo iban acompañadas por el gran esfuerzo de los misioneros por la enseñanza y el adoctrinamiento de los indios. Los clérigos y los políticos sintieron la necesidad de predicar en las lenguas indígenas. En esta monografía se recogen estudios sobre las gramáticas de lenguas amerindias. Se comentan gramáticas de las lenguas otomí, tarasco, náhuatl, quechua, mapuche, guaraní y el millcayac. A modo de epílogo se analiza la política lingüística española y se da una respuesta a la cuestión de hasta en qué medida se encuentran repercusiones de los ’descubrimientos lingüísticos’ del Nuevo Mundo en el pensamiento lingüístico español.

Muwaššaḥ, Zajal, Kharja

Bibliography of Strophic Poetry and Music from al-Andalus and Their Influence in East and West


Henk Heijkoop and Otto Zwartjes

This book is a comprehensive bibliography of publications on strophic poetry and music which originated in the urbanized society of al-Andalus in the 9th century and spread over the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France, North Africa, Egypt and the Near East. It contains an alphabetic catalogue of 2800 titles: books, articles, congress papers, reviews, CD's and a movie. Some titles have annotations.
The catalogue is followed by a register of kharjas and two useful indices: of names and subjects. A short introductory guide precedes the catalogue and a selective discography ends the volume. The bibliography is the first fully comprehensive list of publications on the theme after the pioneering discovery of the kharjas (endings of strophic compositions, muwaššaḥ and zajal) by Samuel Miklos Stern in 1948.


Edited by Maxim P.A.M. Kerkhof, Hugo de Schepper and Otto Zwartjes

Poetry, Politics and Polemics

Cultural transfer between the Iberian peninsula and North Africa


Edited by Otto Zwartjes, Geert Jan van Gelder and Ed C.M. de Moor

It is an established historical fact that both sides of the Straits of Gibraltar formed a cultural unity in many different periods. After the military success of Mûs_ ib Nusayr, Islam broght unity to Arabs and many Berber tribes in the Maghrib, but the struggle for independence and the adoption of the eastern Khârijî doctrine always caused struggles. It is a well known fact that the contingent of Berbers among the Muslims of al-Andalus outnumbered considerably the inhabitants from Arab origin. After the decline and collapse of the Umayyads and Hammûdids in al-Andalus, various Berger dynasties seized their power and founded many different kingdoms (Taifas, from Arabic mulûk al-tawâ'if). Arab Andalusi culture flourished, which can be demonstrated by the fact that Arabic became the most important language of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim rule. On the other hand, large numbers of Andalusis emigrated to the Maghrib in many different periods. Already in the first centuries of Islamic spain, many Andalusis settled in North Africa. These Andalusis fled as a consequence of the drought, or were expelled for having collaborated against the regime or were forced to leave the Peninsula by the Christian Reconquista. Mutual migrations and political unity led to the exchange of many cultural phenomena between the two sides of the Straits. This fourth issue of Orientations focuses on some aspects of the ‘cultural transfer between al-Andalus and North Africa,' and particularly deals with some aspects of Poetry, Politics and Polemics from the eleventeenth to the seventeenth century.