Ludwig Traube (1861–1907), professor of Medieval Latin philology at the University of Munich, Germany, between 1904 and 1907, influenced generations of philologists and medieval historians through his comprehensive methodology, editions of medieval texts, studies on text history, codicology and palaeography, as well as his personal input as a charismatic mentor to numerous young scholars. His direct disciples in Munich—especially Paul Lehmann, E.K. Rand, and E.A. Lowe—transmitted his legacy to further generations. Through Traube’s own extensive scholarly output as well as the work of his school, his methodology, which combined the study of texts with the wider context of their transmission (also involving the study of manuscripts and the history of collections), has proved particularly productive in palaeography and codicology, but not always in text editing or history. In order to assess the relevance of his approach for modern scholarship, this chapter will revisit Traube’s philological method and legacy within the context of the history of philology. It will also illustrate the social and cultural atmosphere of the German Empire in the last decades of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century with regard to the place occupied by German-Jewish intellectuals.