Eric L. Johnson and P.J. Watson
P. J. Watson, Zhuo Job Chen and Ronald J. Morris
According to an Ideological Surround Model (ISM), epistemological sufficiency is essential in attempts to clarify the complexity of conservative religious commitments. A test of this claim involved analysis of a Sanctification of Learning Scale in a sample of 619 undergraduates who also responded to Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Conservative Religious Interest, Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, Defense against Secularism, Religious Orientation, and Openness to Experience measures. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism defined a Religious Fundamentalist ideological surround, and partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism described a Biblical Foundationalist surround. Findings for Sanctification of Learning and other measures identified Biblical Foundationalism as a more open and Religious Fundamentalism as a more closed conservative religious perspective. Defensive against Secularism helped explain religious close-mindedness. Unexpected complexities appeared within an Atheist/Agnostic ideological surround. These data most generally illustrated the greater objectivity that may be available through methods that formally attempt to enhance epistemological sufficiency.
Nima Ghorbani, P. J. Watson, Shiva Geranmayepour and Zhuo Chen
Nima Ghorbani, P.J. Watson, Shiva Geranmayepour and Zhuo Chen
This investigation analyzed Islamic spirituality as measured by a Muslim Experiential Religiousness Scale. Iranian university and seminary students (N = 351) responded to this instrument along with the Psychological Measure of Islamic Religiousness (PMIR) and Perceived Stress and Self-Esteem scales. Muslim Experiential Religiousness correlated predictably with all PMIR subscales, Perceived Stress, and Self-Esteem, and mediated almost all relationships of the PMIR Islamic Beliefs subscale with religious functioning. When evaluated by participants, Muslim Experiential Religiousness items proved to be “rational” relative to their Muslim religious ideals. Women in an Islamic seminary scored higher on Muslim Experiential Religiousness than Islamic women in a more general university, and Muslim Experiential Religiousness also mediated the many other religious differences observed between these two student groups. These data most importantly identified the Muslim Experiential Religiousness Scale as a useful instrument for testing hypotheses about the dynamics of Muslim spirituality.
Relationships with Religious Orientations and Muslim Experiential Religiousness in Pakistan
Ziasma Haneef Khan, P.J. Watson and Zhuo Chen
This investigation examined Pakistani Muslim understandings of the animal sacrifice that occurs during Eid-ul-Adha at the end of the Hajj. Pakistani university students (N = 156) responded to a number of items expressing possible interpretations of this ritual. A Faithful Sacrifice factor operationalized sincere religious reasons for the sacrifice and correlated positively with an Intrinsic Religious Orientation and with Muslim Experiential Religiousness. Extrinsic and Troublesome Sacrifice factors recorded nonreligious implications of the practice and displayed direct associations with the Extrinsic Social Religious Orientation and inverse linkages with Muslim Experiential Religiousness. Extrinsic Sacrifice also correlated negatively with the Intrinsic Orientation. These results further documented the complexity of Muslim beliefs and practices and once again illustrated how a dialectic between tradition-specific and more general social scientific perspectives can promote progress in the psychology of religion.
Religious and Psychological Adjustment in Iran
Nima Ghorbani, P. J. Watson, Mahmood Amirbeigi and Zhuo Job Chen
With Religious Schema Scales in the West, Truth of Texts and Teachings correlates negatively with the commitment to interreligious dialogue recorded by Xenosophia. This measure of fundamentalism also predicts problematic religious and psychosocial functioning. The present project examined Religious Schema Scales in university students and Islamic seminarians in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Truth of Texts and Teachings correlated positively rather than negatively with Xenosophia and predicted religious and psychological adjustment. The adaptive implications of Truth of Texts and Teachings were especially evident in Islamic seminarians. These results supplemented previous Religious Schema data from India and Malaysia in suggesting that fundamentalism may have more positive implications outside the West. Cross-cultural differences in fundamentalism more generally support arguments of an Ideological Surround Model that the incommensurability of religious and other social rationalities requires careful research attention.
Relationships of Attitudes toward Hinduism, Hindu Religious Reflection, and Religious Schema
Shanmukh V. Kamble, P. J. Watson, Savitri Marigoudar and Zhuo Chen
The Religious Openness Hypothesis argues that traditional religions have resources for integrating intellect with faith. In a test of this hypothesis, Hindu graduate students in India (N = 320) responded to Hindu religious reflection, attitudes toward Hinduism, religious schema, religious orientation, and psychological openness scales. Faith and intellect oriented religious reflection correlated positively with each other and with the all three religious schemas, which also correlated directly. Linkages with attitudes toward Hinduism and intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientations documented the compatibility of religious reflection and schema with Hindu commitments. Associations with greater openness to experience and need for cognition confirmed their psychological openness as well. Interactions between attitudes toward Hinduism and the intrinsic orientation suggested that Hinduism had more positive influences in those who were more sincerely religious. These data from India most importantly supported the Religious Openness Hypothesis.
Nima Ghorbani, P.J. Watson, Fazlollah Tavakoli and Zhuo Job Chen
Ziasma Haneef Khan, Saabera Sultana and P. J. Watson
Nima Ghorbani, P. J. Watson, Fazlollaha Tavakoli and Zhuo Job Chen
With Islamic seminarians in Iran (N = 243), use of empirical translation scheme procedures transformed the ‘non-judgmental’ psychological language of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) into a more ‘judgmental’ measure reflecting a Muslim ideological surround. Muslim mindfulness and the MAAS correlated positively with each other, and both predicted stronger religious commitments and better mental health. Multiple regression procedures confirmed that the two forms of mindfulness combined to explain variance in religious and psychological functioning. Both scales also mediated associations of religious and psychological independent variables with both religious and psychological dependent variables. Muslim mindfulness tended to offer a more sensitive assessment of seminarian functioning. These data further illustrated how research that brings religious and psychological perspectives into empirically guided dialogues can enhance understandings of both.