Pablo Castillo and Nicola Vovlas
Pablo Castillo and Gracia Liébanas
Six crucifer species as potential cover crops, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata line C-101), turnip (Brassica rapa cv. Norfolk), radish (Raphanus sativus), wild rocket (Eruca vesicaria), wild cabbage (Moricandia moricandioides) and white mustard (Sinapis alba), were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica. Experiments were conducted under glasshouse conditions at 22-28°C for 2 months after inoculation of plants with eggs and second-stage juveniles. All crucifers were infected by Meloidogyne spp. The nematode and crucifer species significantly influenced the severity of root galling and nematode reproduction. Among the plants tested, turnip was the most suitable host for all three Meloidogyne spp. as indicated by severity of root galling and nematode reproduction. The least suitable hosts were wild rocket for M. arenaria, radish for M. incognita and white mustard for M. javanica. The reproduction fitness of M. javanica was greater than that of M. arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 1 on all plants.
Pablo Castillo Díaz
The role of gender equality considerations, including the gender balance of peacekeeping operations, has been underplayed as a potential solution to the un’s recurrent problems with sexual exploitation and abuse by blue helmets. This article explores 3 elements related to gender equality that have been neglected in responding to this issue: the presence of women in peacekeeping operations, the voice and opinion of women’s organizations, and the assistance to victims of such violations. The connection between women’s leadership and participation, on the one hand, and better outcomes for women and girls on the other, has been evident in many related policy areas, and should be applied more forcefully in addressing sexual exploitation and abuse by un peacekeepers.
Pablo Castillo and Nicola Vovlas
The book comprises seven sections and presents summarised and specialised information on various aspects of the spiral nematodes belonging to the genus Rotylenchus. Sections 1 and 2 describe the importance of Rotylenchus species in agricultural crops, their distribution and numerous aspects of their biology, feeding habits, pathogenicity to vegetables, fruit and forest trees, and ecology. Section 3 presents different management strategies for the most important and pathogenic species of Rotylenchus, including chemical control, crop rotation, and biological control by means of nematophagous fungi, entomopathogenic nematodes, the hyperparasitic bacteria Pasteuria penetrans, and nematicidal plants. Sections 4 and 5 describes the most important morphological characters used in characterising and diagnosing species, as well as a broad discussion on the taxonomy and systematics in Rotylenchus and related genera, including a list of nominal species. These sections also include morphometric and cluster analyses in order to separate groups of species in order to facilitate identification. Section 6 provides a complete description and measurements of all populations characterised for each species, as well as their world distribution. Finally, Section 7 includes comprehensive tabular and dichotomous keys for species identification.
Gracia Liébanas, Pablo Castillo and Nicola Vovlas
SEM studies on a Meloidogyne baetica population provided additional details of the external morphology for female, male and second-stage juveniles. The labial disc in female and male specimens is fused with the medial lips forming a single structure. In second-stage juveniles the lateral lips are triangular with rounded margins. The amphidial opening for all life stages appears oval to rectangular in shape and is located between the labial disc and lateral lips. Lateral fields of male and second-stage juveniles have four incisures irregularly areolated along the entire body. The results of a host-range study for additional natural hosts of M. baetica conducted in wild olive communities growing at Vejer de la Frontera (Cádiz province) in southern Spain are also reported. Apart from the type host, M. baetica was found to infect two natural woody host plants, lentisc (Pistacia lentiscus) and Aristolochia baetica. Hostparasite relationships in these new hosts confirmed the typical susceptible reaction observed in wild and cultivated olives. Similarly, the reproductive fitness, evaluated as the number of eggs per egg mass, was not significantly different in all plant hosts. No infections or galled roots were observed in herbaceous plant species studied and M. baetica must therefore be considered as a parasite of woody plants.
Pablo Castillo, Alberto Troccoli and Nicola Vovlas
Severe root infection of wild olive (Olea europea L. ssp. sylvestris), together with heavy soil infestation by the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus macrosoma, was detected in a natural wild olive orchard on sandy soil in Cádiz province, Andalucía, southern Spain. Most, but not all, of the morphometric characters of this population agreed with those reported for immature and adult females and males in previously studied populations. Sedentary immature and mature females showed a semi-endoparasitic feeding habit in wild and cultivated olives (cvs Arbequina and Picual). Naturally infected roots of wild olive responded to nematode infection identically to artificially infected olive planting stocks. The feeding site induced by R. macrosoma on olive roots consists of a stelar syncytium, which originates from an endodermal cell enlarging by a curved sheet of pericycle cells formed by hypertrophy of pericycle cells adjacent to the feeding cell. There were obvious anatomical differences between the feeding sites induced by R. macrosoma and R. macrodoratus on olive roots.
Pablo Castillo, Alberto Troccoli and Nicola Vovlas
Hemicriconemoides macrodorus n. sp. is described and illustrated from a bisexual population collected in a natural habitat at Santa Elena, Jaén, southern Spain. The new species falls into the 'group 2', based on lip patterns (Decraemer & Geraert, 1992), which contains 13 other species characterised by a cephalic region with an offset, raised, narrower oral disc, followed by broader head annuli. The main distinctive characters of the new species are: lip region truncate, very long stylet (90-100 μ m), long body 548-750 μ m, R = 127-148, conical tail, VL/VB = 1.0-1.5, spined juvenile cuticular ornamentation (multispined scales, indented at their edges) arranged in ten alternate rows, and male lateral field with four incisures. Morphometric data, illustrations and brief descriptions are presented for an Italian population of H. ortonwilliamsi Ye & Siddiqi, 1994, while, for the first time, morphometric data and illustrations are given for the male and the juvenile of H. alexis Vovlas, 1980. Hemicriconemoides macrodorus n. sp. et observations sur deux autres espèces du genre (Nematoda: Criconematidae) - Hemicriconemoides macrodorus n. sp. est décrit et figuré d'une population bisexuelle collectée dans un habitat naturel à Santa Elena, Jaén, le Sud d'Espagne. La nouvelle espèce appartient au ''groupe 2'' sur la base de la morphologie labiale (Decraemer & Geraert, 1992), groupe comptant 13 autres espèces caractérisées par une région céphalique avec un disque labial séparé du reste du corps, proéminent et rétréci, suivi des anneaux céphaliques plus larges. Les principaux caractères distinctifs de la nouvelle espèce sont: région labiale tronquée, très long stylet (90-100 μ m), corps long 548-750 μ m, R = 127-148, queue conique, VL/VB = 1.0- 1.5, ornementations cuticulaires des juvéniles avec épines (écailles avec plusieurs épines, indentées sur les côtés) arrangées en dix rangées alternées, et champ latéral du mâle comportant quatre incisures. Des données morphométriques, des illustrations et de brèves descriptions sont présentées pour une population italienne de H. ortonwilliamsi Ye & Siddiqi, 1994, alors que, pour la première fois, des données morphométriques et des illustrations sont produites pour le mâle et les juvéniles de H. alexis Vovlas, 1980.
Mehrab Esmaeli, Ramin Heydari, Pablo Castillo and Juan E. Palomares-Rius
A new species of the genus Nothotylenchus, N. persicus n. sp. was collected around the roots of grapevine and is described and illustrated herein based on morphological and molecular studies. The new species is characterised by a body length of 776-900 μm, delicate stylet 5-6 μm long, six lines in the lateral field, post-vulval uterine sac short, 10-18 μm long, female tail elongate-conoid with pointed terminus, and bursa covering 40-45% of tail length. Morphologically, N. persicus n. sp. appears closer to four known species of the genus, namely: N. hexaglyphus, N. affinis, N. medians and N. taylori. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2-D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene confirmed the close molecular relationship between N. persicus n. sp. and other anguinids, but Nothotylenchus claded separately from Ditylenchus species.