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Pablo Guerrero and Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract

Six species belonging to the genus Enchodelus that were studied by Thorne in 1939 and deposited at the Nematode Collection of the United States Department of Agriculture, are redescribed, namely: E. arcuatus, E. brevidentatus, E. geraldi, E. hopedorus, E. macrodorus, and E. striatus. Complete descriptions, measurements, illustrations, photographs and remarks for all the species, are provided. Special attention has been paid to lesser known characters, such as the morphology of the female genital system. In addition, the identity of subsequent records of the same species are analysed and discussed.

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Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero and Gracia Liébanas

Abstract

New observations on three similar species of the genus Enchodelus, namely E. groenlandicus, E. macrodorus and E. saxifragae, are provided on the basis of material collected in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Enchodelus groenlandicus is redescribed, this being the first record of the species after its original description 80 years ago. An emended diagnosis is given for E. macrodorus in addition to a compendium and analysis of its previous records. Enchodelus saxifragae, certainly the most widely distributed species in the studied area, is also redescribed. Measurements, illustrations, including LM and SEM, and remarks on the identity of the three species, are presented. Together with E. distinctus and E. microdoroides, the three species form a species group characterised by a long odontostyle (>35 μm), flanged odontophore, tripartite uterus and short, rounded tail. These five species are compared in detail and a key to their identification provided.

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Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero and Gracia Liébanas

Abstract

Two new and one known species belonging to the genus Enchodelus from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated. Enchodelus ameliae sp. n. is a medium-sized nematode (1.37-1.55 mm) with lip region offset by constriction, odontostyle 30-32 μm long, female reproductive system amphidelphic with tripartite uterus, vulva almost equatorial (V = 47-50), spicules 49-60 μm long, 11-14 spaced ventromedian supplements and short rounded conoid tail. Enchodelus longispiculus sp. n. is characterised by its medium-sized body (1.32-1.87 mm), lip region offset by shallow depression, odontostyle 27-31 μm long, female reproductive system amphidelphic with tripartite uterus, vulva pre-equatorial (V = 41-48), spicules 63-72 μm long, 8-14 spaced ventromedian supplements and short rounded conoid tail. Enchodelus hopedoroides is redescribed on the basis of Andalusian material and observations on the Swiss holotype. These three species share some features, such as medium-sized odontostyle (ca 30 μm long), tripartite uterus and short, rounded, tail. They are compared in detail with other similar species, namely E. altherri, E. analatus, E. arcticus, E. georgiensis, E. hopedorus and E. ponorensis. A key to their identification is provided.

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Pablo Guerrero, Gracia Liébanas and Reyes Peña-Santiago

Abstract

Two new and two known species belonging to the genus Enchodelus from the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated. Enchodelus porosus sp. n. is characterised by its medium-sized body (1.39-1.70 mm), lateral chord bearing conspicuous pores surrounded by a refractive ring, odontostyle 16.5-18.0 μ m long, female reproductive system amphidelphic with uterus bipartite including irregular refractive bodies, pars refringens vaginae absent, spicules 39-45 μ m long, 4-6 separated ventromedian supplements and ventrally curved conical tail. Enchodelus veletensis sp. n. is a medium-to large-sized nematode (1.78-2.06 mm), with odontostyle 29-31 μ m long, female genital system amphidelphic with uterus bipartite, vagina bearing two sclerotisations surrounded by a spherical pars distalis and ventrally curved conical tail. In addition, E. morgensis is redescribed and new observations on E. brevidentatus are provided and discussed.

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Majid Pedram, Pablo Guerrero, Robert Robbins, Gholamreza Niknam and Weimin Ye

Abstract

Additional information on the recently described species, Enchodelus veletensis, is provided, with females, males, intersex and juveniles being described from a population recovered from soil samples collected about grasses in a natural region of north-western Iran. This is the first report of this species for male, intersex and juveniles. Nearly full length of 1560 bp 18S rDNA and 828 bp ITS1 were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA supported two distinct monophyletic groups of Enchodelus species, those with rounded tail vs conical tail. Enchodelus veletensis is closely related to E. brevidentatus and E. arcuatus. It has identical sequences with E. brevidentatus in 638 bp partial 18S rDNA yet is morphologically distinct.

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Gholamreza Niknam, Weimin Ye, Pablo Guerrero, Robert Robbins and Majid Pedram

Abstract

A new species with a rounded tail belonging to the Enchodelus macrodorus-group is described from a natural habitat in the vicinity of Kaleibar City, north-west Iran. Enchodelus babakicus n. sp. is characterised by its medium sized body (1.21-1.56 mm), lip region offset by a marked constriction, odontostyle 40-45 μm long, tripartite uterus and presence of abundant males with 49-61 μm long spicules and 10-14 spaced ventromedian supplements. The new species is close to E. distinctus, E. groenlandicus, E. macrodorus, E. microdoroides and E. saxifragae. A population of E. macrodorus was also found in the same sample as the new species. Molecular analysis was inferred from sequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS1 regions of three species of the genus from Iran, including E. babakicus n. sp., E. macrodorus and E. veletensis, together with other available sequences in GenBank. The sequences showed that E. babakicus n. sp. belongs to a clade formed by Enchodelus species characterised by a rounded tail.

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Iuliana Popovici, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero and Marcel Ciobanu

Abstract

Six species of the genus Enchodelus, one new and five known, from natural areas in Romania were studied. Enchodelus transsilvanicus sp. n. is distinguished by its 1.28-1.51 mm long body, lip region moderately angular and 12.5-13.5 μm in diam., odontostyle 29-34 μm long or 2.1-2.6 times the lip region diam., odontophore lacking distinct flanges and 41-45 μm long or 1.2-1.6 times the odontostyle, neck length 272-298 μm, pharyngeal expansion 82-113 μm long and occupying 31-39% of total neck length, female genital system amphidelphic, uterus bipartite and 3.1-3.5 times body diam. at its level, pars refringens vaginae with two distinct sclerotisations, vulva a transverse slit (V = 45-48), female tail conical and regularly ventrad curved (42-47 μm, c = 28-36, c′ = 1.3-1.5), spicules 47-50 μm long, and 6-8 spaced, ventromedian supplements. Measurements, illustrations and additional data of the remaining five species are given, namely E. arcuatus, E. brevidentatus, E. geraldi, E. morgensis and E. veletensis. An emended diagnosis of E. arcuatus is provided. Three species, E. brevidentatus, E. morgensis and E. veletensis, are reported from Romania for the first time.

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Marcel Ciobanu, Iuliana Popovici, Reyes Peña-Santiago and Pablo Guerrero

Abstract

Four species of the genus Enchodelus, one new and three known, from natural areas in Romania are studied. Enchodelus parahopedoroides sp. n. is distinguished by its 1.44-1.64 mm long body, lip region offset by a marked depression and 17-18.5 μm in diam., odontostyle 26-29 μm or 1.5-1.6 lip region diam. long and 1.6-2.0% of total body length, odontophore 40-43 μm long and with distinct basal knobs and flanges, neck length 300-328 μm, pharyngeal expansion 120-130 μm long or 39-41% of total neck length, female genital system amphidelphic, uterus long and tripartite, pars refringens vaginae with two trapezoidal sclerotisations, V= 45-52, tail rounded conoid (20-24 μm long, c = 63-80, c′ = 0.6-0.8), spicules 59-67 μm long, and nine spaced ventromedian supplements starting shortly in front or at level of anterior end of spicules. Enchodelus lucinensis and E. ponorensis are redescribed based on a study of type material. Measurements and additional data are provided for E. longispiculus, which is reported from Romania for the first time.

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Pablo Guerrero, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Iuliana Popovici and Marcel Ciobanu

Abstract

Three species of the genus Enchodelus, one new and two known, from natural areas in Romania are studied. Enchodelus carpaticus sp. n. is distinguished by its body 1.59-1.87 mm long, lip region offset by a marked depression and 17-20 μm diam., odontostyle 39.5-47 μm long and 2.1-2.5 lip region diam. or 2.3-2.8% of total body length, odontophore 42-51 μm long and with distinct basal flanges, neck 336-388 μm long, pharyngeal expansion 136-167 μm long or 39-45% of total neck length, presence of dorsal cell mass near cardia, female genital system amphidelphic, uterus tripartite and 144-195 μm long or 2.2-2.9 times the corresponding body diam., pars refringens vaginae with two trapezoidal sclerotisations, V = 42-50, and female tail short and rounded (21-29 μm long, c = 55-87, c′ = 0.5-0.7). Additional data, including LM pictures, are presented for E. macrodorus and E. saxifragae.

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Reyes Peña-Santiago, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero, Gracia Liébanas, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero, Gracia Liébanas, María del Carmen García, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero, Gracia Liébanas, María del Carmen García, Teresa Palomeque, Reyes Peña-Santiago, Pablo Guerrero, Gracia Liébanas, María del Carmen García, Teresa Palomeque and Pedro Lorite

The identity and evolutionary relationships of the genus Rhyssocolpus are analysed and discussed using an integrative approach including morphological data and partial SSU-rDNA sequences. An Iberian population of R. iuventutis is characterised in detail, providing the first SEM observations of the genus. New sequences of the genera Enchodelus and Rhyssocolpus are provided for comparative purposes. Both morphological and molecular evidence support a separate status for the aforementioned two genera and Heterodorus, of which the latter and Rhyssocolpus shared a recent common ancestor, whereas Enchodelus did not, as had been traditionally assumed, occupy a close position. The Nordiidae is confirmed to be an artificial taxon. The taxonomy of Rhyssocolpus is revised and an emended diagnosis, updated list of species, key to their identification and compendium of their morphometrics are provided. Some nomenclatorial changes are also proposed: R. alleni and R. paradoxus are retained under Eudorylaimus, their original genus, whereas R. brasiliensis is transferred to Eudorylaimus as E. brasiliensis (Meyl, 1956) comb. n.