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In: Globalization and the Making of Religious Modernity in China
in Religion Past and Present Online


The ecological discourses in China include the government’s political propaganda and the voices based on the traditional Chinese culture, especially Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism. Furthermore, there are also public discourses on ecological issues from the environmental scientists and/or activists, who may adhere to neither the political party line nor any traditional Chinese religious/philosophical perspectives. As such, when Chinese Christians attempt to address ecological issues, they have to respond to these divergent voices in the public sphere. This article reviews the Chinese Christian ecological discourses from the perspective of a public theology. It will examine whether, and how, they respond to the non-Christian voices, and analyze how they exhibit different approaches to public theology. It will further explore whether, and how, Chinese Christian ecological discourses could benefit from Christian discourses in other contexts, and may in return contribute to the global development of an ecological theology as a public discourse.

In: International Journal of Public Theology


This article offers an analysis of the problems and tensions in the endeavour to inherit Chinese and Christian traditions in contemporary global and Chinese contexts. Through an investigation of the theological concept of tradition and the Chinese, mainly Confucian, understanding of the transmission of the Way, this article argues that it is possible to inherit the Protestant and Confucian traditions at the same time, without violating the basic principles of the two traditions. It also argues that an integration of the Protestant and Confucian traditions will be beneficial to the development of the two traditions.

In: Religion and Theology
Authors: and


This study explores the relationship between love of oneself (self-love) and love of the others (altruistic love) through comparing the Bodhicaryāvatāra attributed to Śāntideva (7–8th century) and the Chapters on Love (Capita de caritate) by Maximus the Confessor (c.580–662). In their respective advocacy for perfect love, they affirm an equalitarian view of love and the purity of altruistic motivation, which seems to exclude self-benefit and human passions, including familial love. In addition to these similarities, there are also important differences and rooms for mutual learning. Sāntideva’s approach is illustrated primarily by the bodhisattva ideal and further underpinned by the metaphysical principle of dependent co-arising, which affirms the non-duality and mutual benefit between the bodhisattva and the other beings, but this approach tends to neglect the positive roles to be played by human body as well as desires in the attainment of perfect love. In contrast, Maximus’ approach is based mainly on Christology without apparent underpinning from metaphysics, but it can affirm the compatibility of perfect divine love and human love, including the positive roles played by human body and bodily passions in the attainment of perfect love.

In: A Companion to Comparative Theology
In: Yearbook of Chinese Theology 2017
In: Moltmann and China