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Author: Patrick Manning

At its simplest, this essay provides a narrative of migration in Asia since the arrival of Homo sapiens some 70,000 years ago. More fully, it presents the case for conducting long-term, world-historical interpretation for Asia with attention to multiple perspectives, which has become increasingly central to global historical analysis. Following an introductory articulation of the benefits of long-term interpretation, the second section presents a balance of three perspectives—empire, exchange, and migration—as frameworks for interpreting the Asian past. The third section presents further detail on migration in long-term Asian history. The concluding section identifies four changes in patterns of migration during the past two centuries and emphasizes the underlying importance of cross-community migration in long-term human biological and social evolution.

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In: Asian Review of World Histories
Author: Patrick Manning

Abstract

The life sciences underwent a dramatic transformation during the twentieth century, with an expansion in fundamental knowledge of the process of evolution and its molecular basis, through advances in health care that greatly extended human life, and by the combination of these advances to address the problem of conserving the many forms of life threatened by expanding human society. The essay highlights the worldwide emphasis on social welfare in the years 1945–1980 and the expanding role of international collaboration, especially in the International Biological Program and its advances in ecology and the notion of the biosphere, and in the emergence of molecular biology. This was also the era of the Cold War, yet military confrontation had fewer implications for life sciences than for the natural sciences in that era. After 1980, deregulation and neoliberalism weakened programs for social welfare, yet links among the varying strands of life sciences continued to grow, bringing the development of genomics and its many implications, expanding epidemiology to include reliance on social sciences, and deepening ecological studies as the Anthropocene became more and more prevalent. In sum, the experience of the life sciences should make it clear to world historians that scientific advance goes beyond the achievements of brilliant but isolated researchers: those same advances rely substantially on social movements, migration, and the exchange of knowledge across intellectual and physical boundaries.

In: Asian Review of World Histories
Author: Patrick Manning

Abstract

This essay traces the path of empires and nations as forms of governance, the eventual predominance of nations and disappearance of empires, and the contemporary interplay of large and small nations as the dominant form of global governance. It also gives attention to the rise of capitalist economic organization as a factor expanding empires and later encouraging nationhood. The essay emphasizes two stages in the emergence of nations: the emergence in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries of nations and eventually of the great powers, and the post-1945 emergence of nations as the universal form of government, consisting mostly of small powers, linked by the United Nations.

In: Asian Review of World Histories
In: Migration History in World History
In: Migration History in World History
Volume Editors: Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen, and Patrick Manning
Contributor: Andrew Pawley
Migration is the talk of the town. On the whole, however, the current situation is seen as resulting from unique political upheavals. Such a-historical interpretations ignore the fact that migration is a fundamental phenomenon in human societies from the beginning and plays a crucial role in the cultural, economic, political and social developments and innovations. So far, however, most studies are limited to the last four centuries, largely ignoring the spectacular advances made in other disciplines which study the ‘deep past’, like anthropology, archaeology, population genetics and linguistics, and that reach back as far as 80.000 years ago. This is the first book that offers an overview of the state of the art in these disciplines and shows how historians and social scientists working in the recent past can profit from their insights.