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In the EU both beef and sheep carcasses are graded by visual assessment of their conformation and external fat cover ((S)EUROP scheme). Automatic grading machines are preferable to visual assessment because they are more consistent and producers can have more confidence in the fairness of grading results. Video Image Analysis (VIA) technology has been developed to classify carcasses according to the (S)EUROP scheme automatically. In 1999/2000 three VIA systems were installed in a beef plant in Ireland and their performance in predicting reference scores for conformation and fat class was assessed. There were relatively small differences in accuracy between the systems but all three performed better at predicting conformation scores than at predicting fat scores. In 2003 the EC regulation for beef carcass grading was changed to allow automated systems and Ireland was the first country to achieve authorisation. VIA systems have also been applied to sheep carcass grading but so far there has been little adoption by the industry. VIA systems can also accurately predict saleable yield and this can be further improved by the use of hand held cameras to take images at the quartering point. This can also yield information related to quality such as marbling and lean and fat colour. The ultimate goal should be to grade on palatability, the consumers’ perception of quality, as is done in the USA and Australia.

In: Evaluation of carcass and meat quality in ruminants
In: Religion and Theology
In: Values and Education
In: Brill's Companion to the Reception of Cicero
In: Brill's Companion to the Reception of Cicero
Volume Editors: and
Critical junctures in the historical development of science owe their origins to ideas, concepts, and theories that became definitive in the minds of leading scientists who lived in a more or less religious culture. Scientists are never solitary, but always internal to a network of scientific relationships and friendships. They have a well-attested genius, nurtured not only by their scientific training but also by ideas and stimuli received from the cultural and social contexts in which they lived. In particular, metaphysical and theological aspirations guided the genesis of many scientific ideas. This book offers twelve examples of the development of scientific ideas that were shaped by religious factors and which changed the course of science itself. The interwoven nature of science, philosophy, theology, and culture is pervasive in these cases, thus demonstrating that throughout the modern era, natural philosophy enjoyed a deep coherence with theology. That entanglement lingers in the minds of scientists into the contemporary period, and it continues to nourish scientific creativity in subtle and profound ways. New explanations of the world have emerged through illuminative, revolutionary and, one might say, divined ways.


Foucault is accused of reducing the Stoics to dandies, through his focus on the aesthetics of existence in ancient philosophy. This is a charge he denies in the Hermeneutics of the Subject. In the following year’s lectures, he opens with a reading of Kant’s “Answer to the Question ‘What is Enlightenment,’” a text on which he published both in French and English. In the English version, he compares Kant’s text to Baudelaire’s “The Painter of Modern Life,” in which Baudelaire likens the dandy to the Stoics. This paper contests Hadot’s charge that Foucault overemphasizes the aesthetic dimension of ancient philosophies of self-formation. It examines Foucault’s rethinking of the dandy in Baudelaire as a serious philosophical figure. It closes by returning to Hadot’s contention that to kalon cannot be separated from to agathon and maintains that for Foucault the ethical, aesthetic, and epistemic cannot be thought apart from one another.

In: Hadot and Foucault on Ancient Philosophy