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Author: Paul Heger

The rule of Exod 22:15–16 refers unequivocally to an act of seduction and its legal ramifications. Its cognate rule in Deut 22:28–29 is regularly interpreted as referring to an act of rape and its legal ramifications. 11Q19 (11QTa) LXVI:8–11, however, integrates the two biblical decrees, applying the legal implications from Deuteronomy to the seducer. This paper examines the terms in the deuteronomic decree, demonstrating that they do not absolutely indicate violent rape; this, in turn, explains the Temple Scroll’s treatment of the text as referring to an act of seduction. A variety of practical differences result from the two disparate interpretations. Finally, the paper examines the conceptual distinctions between modern criminal law and ancient Israelite divine law.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
In: Challenges to Conventional Opinions on Qumran and Enoch Issues
In: Challenges to Conventional Opinions on Qumran and Enoch Issues
In: Challenges to Conventional Opinions on Qumran and Enoch Issues
In: Challenges to Conventional Opinions on Qumran and Enoch Issues
In: Challenges to Conventional Opinions on Qumran and Enoch Issues
Author: Paul Heger
Some literary expressions in the Dead Sea Scrolls led scholars to allege that their authors professed a dualistic and deterministic worldview of Zoroastrian origin and that the omission of Moses and Sinai from the Enoch writings evinces that a segment in Jewish society marginalized the Torah, adopting Enoch’s prophecies as its ethical guideline. This study challenges these allegations as utterly conflicting with essential biblical doctrines and the unequivocal beliefs and expectations of Qumran’s Torah-centered society, arguing that scholars’ allegations are erroneously based on interpreting ancient texts with a modern mindset and influenced by the interpreter’s personal cultural background. The study interprets the relevant texts in a manner compatible with the presumed doctrines of ancient Jewish authors and readers.
Author: Paul Heger
Women in the Bible, Qumran and Early Rabbinic Literature: Their Status and Roles portrays the tension between the unity of husband and wife and their different legal and social status from a wide range of perspectives, as deduced from the texts of the three corpora. The volume discusses the related topics of divorce, polygamy, woman’s obligations to fulfill precepts, membership in the community, genealogy and attitudes toward sex, such as rejection of asceticism. Women in the Bible, Qumran and Early Rabbinic Literature begins with an objective interpretation of the biblical narratives of the Creation and the Fall, the intellectual basis of Jewish attitudes toward women, and then analyzes the divergent interpretations of Qumran and the Rabbis, the grounds of their distinct doctrines and halakhot.
In: The Dead Sea Scrolls In Context (2 vols) 
In: Women in the Bible, Qumran and Early Rabbinic Literature