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In: Logos
In: Logos
In: Logos
In: Logos

This paper considers the mismatch between China’s emergence as one of the two superpowers, in terms of political, military, and economic clout, and its relative weakness in terms of cultural influence or “soft power”. It suggests that this is partly the result of cultural and language barriers, but also due to misguided state policies, which are ideologically driven and insensitive, both to the workings of Western cultural markets and to the intellectual environments in which creativity is likely to flourish. Some mediating strategies are suggested.

In: Logos

This article is the outcome of a challenge from the editorial management of Logos to the author to suggest a list of 10 books a Westerner planning to visit China for the first time might read in advance to prepare against culture shock. It is somewhat in imitation of a more ambitious collection of reading lists that Gordon Graham edited for Logos in 2012 for a novice visitor to the US. The author has tried to encompass the huge historical sweep and rich cultural diversity of Chinese civilization in 10 very heterogeneous titles, mainly modern but some ancient, all available in English, but by both Chinese and Western authors. Since the list was fated to be less than adequate to the immensity of the task, each title is backed up with some further reading, which, taken together, might form a small China library of some fifty works. For the time-impoverished the author has also suggested just one chapter from one book.

In: Logos
In: Logos
In: Logos

Abstract

The susceptibilities of early and late instar vine weevil larvae and pupae to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes, indigenous to the UK, were tested in a series of bioassays. Steinernema kraussei (isolates L017 and L137), S. feltiae (the commercial product Nemasys®) and Heterorhabditis megidis (the commercial product Nemasys® H, reared both in vivo in Galleria mellonella larvae and in vitro), were tested at 6, 10 and 18°C for 2 weeks (early instars of O. sulcatus) or 3 weeks (late instars and pupae of O. sulcatus). Nematodes were applied to over 3800 larvae or pupae and there were over 400 untreated controls. Each insect was examined subsequently to determine mortality, and parasitised specimens were dissected to establish whether adult nematodes had developed. Differences in pathogenicity between H. megidis reared in vitro and in vivo were demonstrated. S. kraussei (L137) was consistently the most virulent nematode isolate at low temperatures. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.001) effect of temperature on small larvae of O. sulcatus, but also showed differential levels of mortality, not due to nematodes, for both small larvae and pupae. The use of Abbott's correction for control mortality is challenged and the validity of competing risks theory examined.In einer Reihe von Biotests wurde die Anfälligkeit von frühen und späten Larvenstadien sowie Puppen des Rüsselkäfers Otiorhynchus sulcatus gegenüber drei in UK einheimischen entomopathogenen Nematoden untersucht. Steinernema kraussei (isolate L017 und L137), S. feltiae (Handelsprodukt Nemasys®) und Heterorhabditis megidis (Handelsprodukt Nemasys® H, beide in vivo an Larven von Galleria mellonella und in vitro gezüchtet) wurden bei 6, 10 and 18°C für zwei Wochen (frühe Stadien von O. sulcatus) oder drei Wochen (späte Stadien und Puppen von O. sulcatus) geprüft. Über 3800 Larven oder Puppen wurden mit Nematoden behandelt, daneben gab es über 400 unbehandelte Kontrollen. Anschliessend wurde jedes Insekt untersucht, um die Mortalität zu bestimmen. Parasitierte Exemplare wurden aufpräpariert um festzustellen, ob sich adulte Nematoden entwickelt hatten. Zwischen in vitro und in vivo kultivierten H. megidis konnten Unterschiede in der Pathogenität festgestellt werden. S. kraussei (L137) war bei niedrigen Temperaturen durchgehend das virulenteste Isolat. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine signifikante (P < 0.001) Wirkung der Temperatur auf kleine Larven von O. sulcatus. Sie zeigten für kleine Larven und Puppen aber auch unterschiedliche Mortlitätsgrade an, die nicht auf Nematoden zurückgingen. Die Anwendung von Abbott's Korrektur zur Prüfung der Mortalität wird kritisch hinterfragt, die Gültigkeit der Theorie der “competing risks” wird geprüft.

In: Nematology