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Paul Valkema Blouw

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Paul Valkema Blouw

Abstract

At the beginning of her life-long commitment to Dutch post-incunables Miss Kronenberg concentrated on two hitherto unsolved pseudonyms: Adam Anonymus in Basel, the publisher of certain important heterodox works in Dutch, and Hans Luft at Marlborow, the printer of various books for the first Protestant authors in England, including Tyndale. In the work that appeared under these pseudonyms she encountered a number of woodcut initials which originated from the Officina Corveriana in the town of Zwolle in the Northern Netherlands. She thus developed an ingenious theory according to which the true printer was Johannes Hoochstraten, a young man from Antwerp whose father was one of the most eminent publishers in the city. This verdict was generally accepted and, to this day, Miss Kronenberg's analysis is cited without its accuracy ever having been called in doubt. Yet renewed investigation shows that her attributions are unacceptable. It was not Johannes Hoochstraten who printed these clandestine editions but Marten de Keyser (Lempereur) in Antwerp. He collaborated in the production of books in Dutch with the well-known printer-publisher Adriaen van Berghen and, in some publications in English, with his colleague Joannes Grapheus. The part played by De Keyser in the first years of the English reformation thus appears to have been still more important than has hitherto been admitted, while nothing remains of the eminent position which had been accorded to Hoochstraten.

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Paul Valkema Blouw

Abstract

The history of Goossen Goebens has to be entirely reconstructed from what is shown by his printed work together with the few facts which emerge from Plantin's account books. It thus appears that he began his career in 1561 as business manager of the recently founded literary press of Jan van Zuren in Haarlem. He subsequently became factor of the same firm when it entered a second phase in 1565 as a Protestant publishing house in Sedan, probably belonging to two of the Coornhert brothers. This connection lasted for a year, whereupon Goebens returned to Antwerp and spent a few months working for Plantin. It is possible that he then went to Vianen as a collaborator of Augustijn van Hasselt. When the town was occupied in May 1567, however, he did not seek refuge with Augustijn in Wesel but departed for Emden where, in the meantime, the Coornherts had transferred their press. That was where he worked until he managed to establish a printing press of his own in 1570. This continued its production until 1579, the year in which Goebens probably died. Some twenty-eight of Goebens's publications can now be identified, most of which appeared without an imprint. These include anonymous political pamphlets as well as works by Johan Fruytiers and the extensive Protocol of the conference with the Anabaptists in Emden in 1578.

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Paul Valkema Blouw

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Paul Valkema Blouw

Abstract

In 1561, after a deadlock of many years, a new printing-office was set up in Holland by Jan van Zuren and three others, including the author Dirck Coornhert. After one year of publishing the press concluded most of its activities, and-according to documentary information recently found- the company was dissolved. Jan van Zuren became the sole owner of the firm, which over the next three years only issued a few books on commission. The production then ended completely. What became of the typographical material of the printing-shop has always been a mystery. As a result of bibliographical analysis it has now become clear that all the typefaces, initials and ornaments (including the devices)-in fact the whole inventory-were removed to the French town of Sedan. With the permission of the Duke of Bouillon a press was founded, which issued a number of exclusively Protestant works, most of them in Dutch, together with a few political publications in French emanating from the Calvinist leaders of the Resistance to Spanish rule. In 1565 the first factor to run the printing-shop, Goossen Goebens, made his name known in the imprint of a panegyric on the foundation of the press. The following year his place was taken by Lenaert der Kinderen, who broke his contract with Plantin for this new post. In 1567 the press appears to have been active in another town, again in another country. At some time during this year the printing-shop was moved to Emden in East Frisia, where, in 1569, the typographical material is to be found in a book published by the emigrant Jean Malet. Meanwhile six publications, including five Protestant books, were issued without any imprint. Circumstantial evidence justifies the conclusion that one or both of Dirck Coornhert's brothers then were running the printing-office, which they probably already owned in the Sedan period.

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Paul Valkema Blouw