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Paul Williams

Abstract

For its advocates, the 'responsibility to protect' (R2P) principle is clearly intended to be a universal concept, applicable equally to all parts of the globe. Yet recent literature examining the processes of norm diffusion in international relations has suggested that so-called universal norms do not automatically become embedded in different regions of the world and hence commitment to them varies depending on the local context. This article explores this issue with reference to how members of African international society have thought about the R2P idea. To do so it proceeds in two parts. The first summarises what I mean by African international society and the process of norm localization. In the second, I explore the current status of the R2P idea within the African society of states with reference to six illustrative episodes. These concern: 1) the building of Africa's new peace and security architecture; 2) the debate surrounding the adoption of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document; 3) UN Security Council debates about the protection of civilians in armed conflict; 4) the African Union's response to the conflict in Darfur, Sudan; 5) the UN Secretary-General's appointment of a special adviser on R2P; and 6) African international society's response to the crisis in Zimbabwe. I conclude by reflecting upon what these episodes reveal about the current status of the R2P within African international society and the extent to which different camps are emerging that articulate different local positions on, and express varying degrees of skepticism about, the protection principle.

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Paul Williams

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Edited by Gareth Williams and Paul Bibire

This volume includes selected papers from an interdisciplinary symposium in Norse Studies held at the University of St Andrews. The symposium brought together scholars with a shared interest in medieval Scandinavian history and culture, especially the sagas, from a variety of disciplines, and this diversity is reflected in the papers published here.
Topics covered include saga genre, with particular focus on encyclopaedic manuscripts and the late Íslendinga sögur respectively, the relationship between saga literature and hagiography, with papers on Hrafns saga Sveinbjarnarsonar and on the textual traditions surrounding St Magnús of Orkney and St Thomas of Canterbury, and various aspects of the Norse settlement in Scotland.
The volume shows the variety of approaches which can be taken to the sagas as texts, especially when combined with other historical and literary material.
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Paul D. Williams

This article analyzes seven strategic challenges which faced the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) between March 2007, when it first deployed to Mogadishu, and August 2012, when Somalis selected a new Federal Government to replace the existing transitional institutions. The seven strategic challenges were the initial international political context in which the mission deployed; problems of internal coordination between the mission’s component parts; the lack of a reliable local partner with which to wage a counter-insurgency campaign; problems of strategic coordination among external partners; the nature of the enemy forces facing AMISOM, principally al-Shabaab; AMISOM’s lack of relevant capabilities and resources to perform its mandated tasks; and the challenges of facilitating legitimate and effective governance structures, especially as AMISOM began to deploy outside Mogadishu from late 2011.

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Ariela Blätter and Paul D. Williams

Abstract

Although the Member States of the United Nations (UN) unanimously endorsed the 'responsibility to protect' (R2P) principle in October 2005, debates continue about its scope, potential impact and how it might be operationalised. This article examines one strand of the wider efforts to turn the responsibility to protect into a workable international agenda, namely, the 'responsibility not to veto'. This is the idea that the permanent five members of the UN Security Council (P5) should agree not to use their veto power to block action in response to genocide and mass atrocities which would otherwise carry a majority in the Council and where their own vital security interests are not engaged. It has been promoted in a variety of international forums for nearly a decade but has not been adopted by the P5. We argue that this idea deserves support although we acknowledge that it addresses only one part of the wider conundrum of preventing mass atrocities. Its primary limitation is that the problem veto abstention is designed to solve – situations where potential rescuers are blocked by a (threat of ) P5 veto – has been a rare occurrence in contemporary world politics. The more common scenario has been that cases of mass atrocities have not generated sufficient political will to mobilise an international military response. Consequently, the responsibility not to veto must form part of a broader range of R2Pfriendly measures to help prevent mass atrocities and rescue their victims should they occur.

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Michael Williams and Paul Fletcher-Tomenius

Paul R. Viotti and Williams, Robert E., Jr.

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Edited by P. John Williams and C. Paul Newhouse

It was the belief that assessment is the driving force of curriculum that motivated the authors of this monograph to embark on a program of research and development into the use of digital technologies to support more authentic forms of assessment. They perceived that in responding to the educational needs of children in the 21st Century, curriculum needed to become more relevant and engaging, but that change was unlikely without commensurate change in methods and forms of assessment. This was particularly true for the high-stakes assessment typically conducted at the conclusion of schooling as this tended to become the focus of the implemented curriculum throughout the years of school. Therefore the authors chose to focus on this area of assessment with the understanding that this would inform assessment policy and practices generally in schools.
This book provides a conceptual framework and outlines a project in which digital methods of representing students performance were developed and tested in the subject areas of Applied Information Technology, Engineering, Italian and Physical Education. The methodology and data collection processes are discussed, and the data is analysed, providing the basis for conclusions and recommendations.
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Paul E. Lovejoy and Pat Ama Tokunbo Williams