Males of the South American treefrog Aplastodiscus perviridis construct concealed subterranean nests. Using a complex courtship behavior that involves tactile stimuli and vocalizations, males guide the females to the subterranean nests where eggs are laid. Embryos and facultatively oophagous tadpoles (at least in stage 25) stay in subterranean nests until flooding transports them to ponds or streams. This is a rare reproductive mode previously known for few species in the Hyla albosignata and H. albofrenata complexes. Based on similarities of reproductive mode we suggest a monophyletic origin for Aplastodiscus and these complexes of Hyla.
The karyotype of a new species of Paratelmatobius from the P. cardosoi group is described. As with other Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys karyotypes, Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi) shows a diploid number of 24 chromosomes, in addition to other similarities with the former karyotypes. The Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi) karyotype differs from that of P. cardosoi in the morphology of pair 4, the NOR location and the C-bands in pairs 3 and 8 (exclusive to Paratelmatobius sp.) and those of pairs 7 and 9 (exclusive to P. cardosoi). Both karyotypes also differ in the amount of heterochromatin in pair 1. The presence of interstitial heterochromatin in the long arm of pair 1 and the interstitial C-bands in both arms of chromosome 5 are apparently synapomorphic characters of P. cardosoi and Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi), since they are absent in the other Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys karyotypes. In Paratelmatobius sp. (aff. cardosoi), the nucleolus organizer region is on the short arm of a small metacentric chromosome (pair 9), an arrangement similar to the NOR-bearing chromosome pair in the karyotype of P. poecilogaster and in karyotype II of Scythrophrys. A conspicuous heteromorphism unrelated to the sex determining mechanism was also observed and probably arose from a pericentric inversion.
Amphisbaena rozei is endemic to the Caura River basin in Venezuela, and known only from the holotype and one paratype. Its original description is very brief, lacking relevant information used by taxonomists today. Additionally, A. rozei appears to be similar to A. spurrelli, a species from northwestern Colombia and southern Panama. We present a redescription of A. rozei based on the examination of the type specimens and compare this taxon to the other known South American amphisbaenids, especially A. spurrelli. We conclude A. rozei is a valid name, and the species is diagnosed mainly by the presence of four precloacal pores, a lateral sulcus, 205–209 body annuli, 20 caudal annuli, 15–16 dorsal and 14 ventral segments on a midbody annulus, and dorsal surface of tail covered by strong tubercles.