The Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) decided in 2006 through its Mapping Committee to implement the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe (NA2RE: http://na2re.ismai.pt) as a chorological database system. Initially designed to be a system of distributed databases, NA2RE quickly evolved to a Spatial Data Infrastructure, a system of geographically distributed systems. Each individual system has a national focus and is implemented in an online network, accessible through standard interfaces, thus allowing for interoperable communication and sharing of spatial-temporal data amongst one another. A Web interface facilitates the access of the user to all participating data systems as if it were one single virtual integrated data-source. Upon user request, the Web interface searches all distributed data-sources for the requested data, integrating the answers in an always updated and interactive map. This infrastructure implements methods for fast actualisation of national observation records, as well as for the use of a common taxonomy and systematics. Using this approach, data duplication is avoided, national systems are maintained in their own countries, and national organisations are responsible for their own data curation and management. The database could be built with different representation levels and resolution levels of data, and filtered according to species conservation matters. We present the first prototype of NA2RE, composed of the last data compilation performed by the SEH (Sillero et al., ). This system is implemented using only open source software: PostgreSQL database with PostGIS extension, Geoserver, and OpenLayers.
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is an invasive pest of pines. When introduced accidentally into a new geographic area, it will share the same ecological niche as the closely related indigenous species, B. mucronatus. Competition between native and introduced species may affect the spread of invasive species, so we investigated the possible competitive interaction between these two nematode species transmitted by the same insect-vector, Monochamus galloprovincialis. In order to understand how the two species interacted, we compared, under laboratory conditions, their growth on fungi and pines, their ability to board M. galloprovincialis, and their competitive interaction in situations of double boarding. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus showed greater rates of growth than B. mucronatus in single and mixed treatments. The invasive species was competitively superior to the indigenous species in mixed treatments (fungi and pines). This competitive advantage in pines, prior to the beetles' infestation, could explain the greater abundance of the invasive (68%) species over the indigenous in the insect vector M. galloprovincialis. The indigenous species had no effect on beetle boarding of the invasive species. The occurrence of B. mucronatus in France and its wide distribution on numerous pine species could have an effect on B. xylophilus invasion in the initial steps of an invasion process. Nevertheless, due to the superior competitiveness of B. xylophilus, we cannot state that B. mucronatus will be efficient as a factor to decrease propagation of this invasive species.