A New Approach to Applying Marx’s Value Theory and Its Implications for Socialist Strategy
Author: Peter Jones
In The Falling Rate of Profit and the Great Recession of 2007-2009, Peter Jones develops a new non-equilibrium interpretation of the labour theory of value Karl Marx builds in Capital. Applying this to US national accounting data, Jones shows that when measured correctly the profit rate falls in the lead up to the Great Recession, and for the main reason Marx identifies: the rising organic composition of capital.
Jones also details a new theory of finance, which shows how cycles in the profit rate relate to stock market booms and slumps, and movements in the interest rate. He discusses the implications of the analysis and Marx and Engels’ work generally for a democratic socialist strategy.
Author: Peter Jones

Abstract

This article explores the attitudes of Canadian officials towards international conflict mediation and towards the potential for greater official Canadian involvement in the field. The study is based on extensive interviews with Canadian officials who have been involved in mediation at various points over a 20-year period. It finds that Canada, and particularly the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), has taken a largely ad hoc approach to its involvement in the field. Prior to the initiation of this study, there had been no attempt to develop an institutional capacity in this field within DFAIT or to keep track of the personnel involved in such experiences, much less to develop a trained cadre of such individuals. This stands in contrast to the efforts of countries that have prioritized mediation as a foreign policy activity, such as some Scandinavian countries and Switzerland. Many of those interviewed pointed to these countries as potential models for Canada in this field, but it became apparent in discussions that most of those interviewees were not necessarily well-informed as to what these countries have done; there was just a general sense that these countries do it well and that Canada could learn from them. Moreover, none of the interviewees demonstrated significant familiarity with the vast literature on mediation. Those interviewed made recommendations as to how Canada might develop its official mediation capacities so as to play a more active and focused role in this field.

In: International Negotiation
Author: Peter Jones

Despite saying that they will never “talk to terrorists,” many countries have done so. Often these dialogues have included a component of so-called “Track Two Diplomacy.” This article examines whether such a dialogue could be held with al Qaeda and other such groups. Research demonstrates that dialogues have been useful in ending terror campaigns in certain circumstances, but that they were never the decisive element. Where they have been useful, dialogues have helped to distinguish those members of terror organizations who are willing to talk from the hardliners, in helping to develop ‘acceptable’ players on the other side, and in allowing the two sides to better understand each other. The article finds that a dialogue with the hard core of al Qaeda is likely impossible, but that some elements may be willing to talk. Such dialogues will be localized and will be about specific concerns and, like in other cases, will be about seeing if there are elements of the movement that can be detached from the hard-core base. Track Two may have a role to play in these dialogues, but expectations should be kept modest.

In: International Negotiation
Author: Peter Jones

Summary

Back-channel diplomacy allows participants to hold dialogues with actors with whom they are not prepared to talk openly. The secrecy of back channels can, however, permit a small elite to escape oversight and scrutiny to achieve unaccountable aims. This article examines the ethical dilemmas raised by the secrecy of back channels. It seeks to develop some practical ‘tests’ that can be used to ask whether a back channel is straying, or has strayed, into dangerous ethical territory. The article advances three such tests for further development, but also concludes that they cannot be ‘absolute’; the context in which a back channel operates is the key variable.

In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
Author: PETER J. JONES

Palearctic migrants arrive in the northern tropics south of the Sahara between August and October, as the local rainy season ends. Some species remain in the Sahel and Sudan zones throughout the overwintering period. Others seem unable to tolerate the increasing aridity as the dry season progresses. These remain in the Sahel and Sudan zones for 1–2 months and then fatten before performing a second migration further south, either to dry Guinea savannas in West Africa, or to rainy conditions in equatorial East Africa or southern Africa, where rains begin in November. Between March and May, as southern Africa enters its dry season and the rains begin in the northern tropics, these movements are reversed, but the passage is much more rapid than in autumn. Birds that overwinter too far south to reach the Palearctic in a single journey, put on enough fat to reach the southern edge of the Sahara, where they refatten finally for the Saharan or Arabian desert crossing. Palearctic migrants, like other birds, moult when it is most favorable to do so. Some species wintering in the dry northern tropics moult on the breeding grounds before migration, while others moult in winter quarters in September-December when these areas are still wet. Species wintering at equatorial latitudes tend to moult on their northern stopover sites or in their final winter quarters during the same period. Birds wintering in southern Africa moult in their final destination between November and April.

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution
Authors: Peter Jones and Ken Devine

Abstract

The exogenous application to three Globodera pallida-infested fields of tomato root leachate (TRL) containing hatching factors increased nematode hatch and in-egg mortality, particularly in a highly organic soil, and in a sandy but not in a clay soil. The most active concentrations of TRL (7.5-12.5 mg m-2) resulted in a reduction of between 69 and 79% in the number of viable eggs per cyst recovered 12 weeks after TRL application. At high hatching factor concentrations, supra-optimal inhibition of both hatch and in-egg mortality was observed; generally, hatch and in-egg mortality exhibited similar dosage-responses to TRL. A significant TRL dosage-hatch response was observed at 4 weeks after TRL application only in the sandy soil. In vitro, a G. pallida population exhibiting moderate hatch gave similar hatching and in-egg mortality responses as in the field experiment. The response of the PCN populations in vitro was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the egg/juvenile complex, with egg populations in diapause responding to the presence of natural and artificial hatching factors by exhibiting increased in-egg mortality but not increased hatch. The results are discussed in relation to novel G. pallida control measures.

In: Nematology
Authors: Ken Devine and Peter Jones

Abstract

Soil core samples were taken from a commercial potato field before emergence of the potato crop, during crop development and after harvesting. Leachates from the cores were analysed in an in vitro hatching assay in the laboratory for activity towards the potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Hatching activity in the soil increased rapidly after plant emergence and peaked between 2 and 5 weeks after emergence; thereafter, at about the onset of flowering, hatching factor activity decreased markedly. The soil cores collected in the first 2 weeks after plant emergence contained significantly greater hatching activity towards G. pallida than G. rostochiensis, indicating that G. pallida-selective hatching factors were produced by the host crop earlier than G. rostochiensis-selective hatching factors. Soil cores collected from the potato ridge and the furrows at various depths and distances from the host plants differed in the distribution of G. pallida-selective and G. rostochiensis-selective hatching activity within the soil profile. Globodera pallida-selective hatching activity had greater vertical and horizontal mobility in the soil profile and elicited significantly greater hatching responses than G. rostochiensis beyond the region of the rhizosphere. Significant levels of hatching factor activity could be detected in the field 90 days after harvesting of the potato crop.

In: Nematology
Authors: Ken Devine and Peter Jones

Abstract

In studies using three sibling F1 clones from each of five crosses between Solanum tuberosum and different wild tuberbearing Solanum species, root leachate hatching activity towards each of the two potato cyst nematode (PCN) species, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, segregated independently. Sephadex G-10 fractionation of the leachates of S. sucrense-hybrid clones revealed differences between clones in the hatching factor elution profiles for the two PCN species. Analysis of individual hatching factors indicated examples both of selectivity (both PCN species hatched in response to a particular hatching factor, but at different levels of hatching response) and of specificity (only one PCN species hatched in response to a particular hatching factor) of hatching factors. The hatching factor profiles of the S. sucrense-hybrids indicated segregation of hatching factors from the parents, but also detected novel factors unique to specific hybrid clones. Total hatching activity of the root leachate of the S. sucrense clones was positively correlated with the proportion of S. tuberosum-derived hatching factors.

In: Nematology