Using a speeded classification task, Walker and Walker () demonstrated a cross-sensory correspondence between haptic size and surface brightness. Specifically, adult participants classified bright (dark) visual stimuli more quickly and accurately when this required them to press the smaller (bigger) of two response keys which were always hidden from view. The nature of the correspondence (i.e., small being aligned with bright), along with various aspects of the task situation, indicated that the congruity effect originated at later stages of information processing concerned with the semantic classification of stimuli and response selection. The study reported here provides additional evidence for the involvement of semantic coding. When the names of bright (white) edible substances (e.g., flour) and dark (black) inedible substances (e.g., soot) were classified according to their surface brightness, the same size–brightness congruity effect was observed. However, when the basis for classification of the substances was switched to their edibility, the congruity effect disappeared. It is therefore proposed that congruity effects based on cross-sensory correspondences can reflect interactions between the connotative meanings of elementary stimulus features (cf. Karwoski et al., ).
This chapter focuses on ‘Cook Centre’ (pseudonym), one of four case studies special schools within a broader doctoral thesis. The thesis aimed to explore whether the co-location of special schools with mainstream schools, instigated by recent reforms in South Australia, would likely lead to more inclusive schooling. Soja’s Thirdspace is used as a conceptual framework within this spatial research. Member checking of major themes occurred post-analysis, during an interview with a school leader, increasing the credibility of the final analysis. Findings showed a desire to reproduce some spaces to maintain previous teaching practices. The number of withdrawal spaces was increased throughout the school. Member checking supporting the intention of these spaces being used for behavioral management purposes. A large central corridor was a starkly new feature, enabling school leaders to quickly ascertain what is occurring within classrooms and to view without being viewed. This chapter contributes to a developing research area, looking at how spatial decisions of policymakers and educators can impact inclusive education.
Following Karwoski et al. (), it is proposed that cross-sensory correspondences can arise from extensive, bidirectional cross-activation between dimensions of connotative meaning. If this account is correct, the same set of cross-sensory correspondences (e.g., smallness with brightness, brightness with high pitch, high pitch with sharpness) should emerge regardless of the sensory channel (visual, auditory or tactile) that is probed. To test this prediction, participants rated a range of visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli on a series of rating scales relating to different dimensions of connotative meaning. The same set of cross-sensory correspondences emerged from all types of stimulus variation. This supports the suggestion that cross-sensory correspondences can reflect reciprocal interactions between dimensions of connotative meaning, and indicates that Spence’s () theoretical framework might be usefully extended to include semantically-based correspondences.