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Pieter B. Hartog

This article argues that 1QpHab 2:5–10 and 1QpHab 9:3–7 are later additions to Pesher Habakkuk. As these are the only passages in Pesher Habakkuk which explicitly refer to “the latter days,” I propose that these additions constitute an explicitly eschatological literary layer, which was presumably added to Pesher Habakkuk in the Herodian era. This literary development of Pesher Habakkuk demonstrates that the Pesharim are no static entities, but partake in a living and fluid interpretative tradition.

Pieter B. Hartog

Abstract

Two reading traditions are reflected in the ancient witnesses to Nahum 2:14, which can be referred to as ‘masculine’ (4Q169) and ‘feminine’ (MT, TJon, P), depending on the implied referent of the suffixes in this verse. It is argued in this contribution that the textual history of Nahum 2:14 and the origins of these two reading traditions can be explained from the relationship between the Hebrew words רכב and רב, which presumably go back to a common source *רכבכה. This can be taken as evidence that the masculine reading of Nahum 2:14 is the more original one, whereas the feminine reading is the outcome of textual corruption.

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Pieter B. Hartog

Abstract

This contribution explores the way in which Philo of Alexandria responded to the confrontational politics of the Roman emperor Gaius Caligula, who failed to protect Jewish political life in Alexandria from Greek and Egyptian attacks in 38 CE and even threatened to disrupt their religious life in Jerusalem by placing his statue in their temple. It is shown how Philo’s cultural resistance against the Roman emperor takes shape in a rather subtle way, by presenting the Jews as the guardians of traditional Roman values. Whereas the previous emperors, Augustus and Tiberius, conducted themselves as rulers of the global oikoumenē and exhibited a translocal mindset, taking care to foster the stability of the global Roman Empire by allowing the subjected nations to maintain their local ethnic customs, Gaius deviates from the succession of these good emperors, with his self-centred character and lack of virtue distorting the stability of the empire. The Jews, however, through the defence of their ethnic customs, contribute to the empire’s stability. Although polemicising against the figure of Gaius, Philo’s use of a strategy of “glocalisation,” in which he reimagines the Jews’ local identity from within the global context of the Roman Empire, allows him to remain as constructive as possible.