Support and supervision of a court ensure the integrity of the arbitral process and protect the public interest. However, to prevent the confidence of the arbitral system from being damaged, the judicial control should not be too strict. The support and supervision of a court can be seen in many aspects, among which is to challenge an award. Under the Chinese arbitration law, an award made by a foreign arbitration agency is regarded as a foreign award, challenge of which involves resisting recognition and enforcement in accordance with the relevant provisions of the international treaties concluded or acceded to by the People’s Republic of China or on the principle of reciprocity.1 Accordingly, an award made by a Chinese arbitration agency is regarded as a domestic award, challenge of which includes setting aside and resisting enforcement. As to the grounds and procedures for challenging a domestic award, including foreign-related awards and non-foreign-related awards, some Chinese provisions are either obscure or contradictory. There may be room for the Chinese system to be modernized. The Model Law and the English Arbitration Act of 1996 may be used for its reference.
We present an updated checklist of the Diaptomidae of China, based on a literature review and on original field data from all over China during 2012-2016. A total of 19 genera and 56 species have been recorded. Neutrodiaptomus has the highest species richness (10 species), followed by Arctodiaptomus (9 species). Only one species each of Eudiaptomus, Mixodiaptomus, Eodiaptomus, Dentodiaptomus, Dolodiaptomus, Allodiaptomus, Karstodiaptomus, Metadiaptomus and Paradiaptomus was found. The taxonomic status of 16 species was revised: one wrongly attributed genus, Argyrodiaptomus, was corrected to Sinodiaptomus. First records for China include Arctodiaptomus parvispineus and one new cave-dwelling genus, Karstodiaptomus, is added. One Latin name from Shen & Sung’s book () is corrected. Remarks on nomenclature and taxonomic issues are supplemented with information on the geographical distribution of the various species within China.
In 1964 and 1965, Shen & Tai described two species of calanoids, which they classified in the South American genus Argyrodiaptomus. We examined new material from the terra typica, South China, and show that both species belong in the Asian genus Sinodiaptomus. A biogeographic anomaly is thus corrected. Moreover, the two appear to be sister species and males are morphologically well separable. No intermediate morphotypes have so far been detected. S. cavernicolax (Shen & Tai, ), known only from the type locality, was claimed to be cavernicolous, but shows no stygobitic adaptations, and has eyes. It may have been pushed back into the cave environment by its congener S. ferus (Shen & Tai, ) with which it coexists in the same lake system.
So far, four species of Sinodiaptomus have been found in China: the two mentioned above, i.e., S. cavernicolax only in Longyan Cave of Zhaoqing City, and S. ferus at about five locations, but its range is limited to a small part of Guangdong Province. All five other species of Sinodiaptomus, among which the other two that occur (also) in China, also occupy small to very small ranges, with the type species (S. chaffanjoni Richard, 1897) only living in North China, and S. indicus Kiefer, 1936 and S. mahanandiensis Reddy & Radhakrishna, confined to South India (Reddy & Radhakrishna, ). S. valkanovi Kiefer, from Japan is invasive (Ueda & Ohtsuka, ; Makino et al., ). S. sarsi Rylov, , distributed in Japan, China, and most of Mongolia, is separated by a wide disjunction from a group of populations in Iran, the Caucasus, and East Anatolia. This western group of populations might be a separate species and deserves more study.
Mango is an important tropical fruit, and thrips are important pests that have threatened mango yield and quality in recent years. It is important to determine the dominant species and distribution of thrips in mango for effective thrips control. In the present study, the species of thrips in mango flowers in the five main mango-producing provinces of China, and the species of thrips in different phenological stages of mango in Hainan Province were investigated. Thrips species on weeds in mango agroecosystems were also determined. The results indicated that in total there are 41 species of thrips in mango orchards in the five main mango-producing provinces of China, belonging to 21 genera, five subfamilies and three families. These are 31 species in 13 genera of Thripidae, nine species in seven genera of Phlaeothripidae, and one species in one genus of Aeolothripidae. The major species of thrips differed across the main mango production areas. Thus, 26, 17, 23, 12 and 7 species of thrips were collected in mango orchards in Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan and Fujian, respectively. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), an important invasive pest in China, was only discovered in mango orchards in Yunnan and Sichuan. Thrips species and population dynamics are closely related to the phenological stage of mango. In Hainan, the dominant thrips species during the shoot period and young fruit stage was Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. In the flowering period, the thrips population increased significantly and species composition became complicated in the field, with Thrips hawaiiensis and F. intonsa being the dominant species. Frankliniella intonsa and T. hawaiiensis were the dominant species on weeds in the mango ecosystem, which was consistent with them being dominant thrips species on mango. It is speculated that in mango ecosystems, weeds provide refuge to thrips and removing weeds benefits thrips control in mango orchards during the flowering period.
Comparative studies of the relative testes size in animals show that promiscuous species have relatively larger testes than monogamous species. Sperm competition favours the evolution of larger ejaculates in many animals – they give bigger testes. In the view, we presented data on relative testis mass for 17 Chinese species including 3 polyandrous species. We analyzed relative testis mass within the Chinese data set and combining those data with published data sets on Japanese and African frogs. We found that polyandrous foam nesting species have relatively large testes, suggesting that sperm competition was an important factor affecting the evolution of relative testes size. For 4 polyandrous species testes mass is positively correlated with intensity (males/mating) but not with risk (frequency of polyandrous matings) of sperm competition.
The original description of Diaptomus vexillifer Brehm, 1933,
endemic to Lake Danao (Leyte Island), was elementary and lacking taxonomically
satisfactory characters. In this paper, we redescribe the Philippine-endemic
genus Filipinodiaptomus Lai, Mamaril Sr. & Fernando, 1979
and the species D. vexillifer collected from its type locality,
using light and scanning electron microscopy and an analysis of the mtCOI gene
and the ITS of the nuclear 18S operon. We found that D.
vexillifer is the second species under this endemic genus. A
neotype and paraneotypes are hereby designated. Also a detailed morphological
comparison is made between Filipinodiaptomus vexillifer (Brehm,
1933) comb. nov. and Filipinodiaptomus insulanus (Wright,
1928). Their taxonomic characters, interspecies relationship, and biogeography
are likewise discussed.