This book redefines the concepts of the city and civilization in the Harappan and Early Historic South Asia, using archaeological data and ancient Indian texts. In contrast to previous studies, it approaches the texts not as sources of factual information, but as sources of abstract ideas that can be used in the analysis of archaeological data. The main themes discussed throughout the book are: the use of ancient texts in the analysis of archaeological data, the historicity of Sanskrit and Pa-li literature, the idea of the city in the Harappan and Gangetic South Asia, and ultimately the idea of the ancient Indian civilization. This book is important to all interested in the rise of civilization in South Asia, the archaeology of early complex societies, and ancient history. It is illustrated with plans and photos of archaeological sites.