The construction of “citizen-state” relations in the intellectual world of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities, wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as “female citizen” by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities, and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship. Though the idea of “female citizen” was not provided with a political theory of practical significance, the subject identity of women, however, was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices, resulting in a dynamic discourse of “female citizen”; in the meantime, disagreements concerning the concepts of “female rights,” “civil rights,” and “natural rights” have all helped create significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.
Edited by Qiao Liu and Wenhua Shan
BAI Chong-En, LIU Qiao, LU Joe, SONG Frank M and ZHANG Junxi
This paper empirically studies the relationship between the governance mechanisms and the market valuation of publicly listed firms in China. The authors construct measures for corporate governance mechanisms and measures of market valuation for all publicly listed firms on the two stock markets in China by using data from the firm’s annual reports. They then investigate how the market-valuation variables are affected by the corporate governance variables while controlling for a number of factors commonly considered in market valuation analysis. A corporate governance index is also constructed to summarize the information contained in the corporate governance variables. The index is found to have statistically and economically significant effects on market valuation. The analysis indicates that investors pay a significant premium for well-governed firms in China, benefiting firms that improve their governance mechanisms.
Qiao Liu, Hao Feng, Long Jin, Zhi Ping Mi, Zhao Min Zhou and Wen Bo Liao
Bergmann’s rule states that within a species of endotherms smaller individuals are found in warmer conditions, which is consistent for nearly all endotherms, while in ectotherms body size patterns are less consistent. As ectothermic vertebrates, the morphology of amphibians is likely impacted by climatic conditions. Here, we examined latitudinal variation in body size in the ranid frog, Fejervarya limnocharis, based on literature and our own data on mean body size of 3637 individuals from 50 populations and average age of 2873 individuals from 40 populations in China. The results showed that body size was positively correlated with environmental temperature, but not with precipitation. Body size was negatively correlated with latitude among populations in this species, which supported the inverse of Bergmann’s rule. Our findings suggest that a larger body size in low-latitude populations is associated with a longer growing season related to the higher environmental temperature.
Kaikai Qiao, Mengxin Bai, Yadeng He, Jingwei Chen, Shun Xiao, Xi Cheng, Guokun Liu, Sigal Braun-Miyara and Xue Qing
In this study, we describe Labrys fuzhouensis sp. n. based on detailed morphology revealed by scanning electron microscopy and molecular data inferred from 18S and 28S rRNA. The new species differs from other Labrys species by a combination of several morphometric and morphological characters: vulva-anus distance 66-74 μm, tail length 172-182 μm, post-uterine sac 11-12 μm, excretory duct less sclerotised, and hexagon-shaped labial disc. The novelty of L. fuzhouensis sp. n. is also confirmed by multi-dimensional scaling analysis. The 18S and 28S rRNA-based phylogenies suggest that the new species nested in the Labrys clade as sister to L. chinensis. In addition to the new species description, Coslenchus rafiqi is reported from China for the first time, the description being supplemented by the first molecular data (18S and 28S rRNA) for this species.
Kaikai Qiao, Mengxin Bai, Qiu Wang, Xiangyu Hou, Jingwei Chen, Shun Xiao, Guokun Liu, Wim Bert and Xue Qing
Species of the family Tylenchidae are encountered in large numbers in soils. The genus Labrys was recently described characterised by a remarkable lip pattern that differs from all other known Tylenchidae genera. Here we describe a curious new species, Labrys fujianensis sp. n., that morphologically fits the genus Labrys but which is genetically divergent. The phylogeny was inferred based on 18S and 28S rDNA and light and scanning electron microscopy were used to extract detailed morphologies. The phylogenetic position of this species and its phenotypic convergence are discussed. The possibility of a long-branch attraction artefact was inspected both by removal of variable nucleotide sites and monophyletic testing of topologies. The results confirmed the divergent positioning of the presented species and it is demonstrated that the genetic diversity in Tylenchidae may be much higher than expected due to morphological homoplasy.