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Authors: QIAO Yigang and LIU Kun

The construction of “citizen-state” relations in the intellectual world of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities, wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as “female citizen” by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities, and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship. Though the idea of “female citizen” was not provided with a political theory of practical significance, the subject identity of women, however, was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices, resulting in a dynamic discourse of “female citizen”; in the meantime, disagreements concerning the concepts of “female rights,” “civil rights,” and “natural rights” have all helped create significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.

In: Frontiers of History in China
In: China and International Commercial Dispute Resolution
In: China and International Commercial Dispute Resolution
In: China and International Commercial Dispute Resolution
Editors: Qiao Liu and Wenhua Shan
China and International Commercial Dispute Resolution presents important contributions from eminent legal scholars from Europe, the United States, Australia, South America, and China in a variety of areas of international commercial law with relevance to China. The authors provide expert analyses from a number of perspectives – doctrinal, comparative, empirical, economic, and legal – on an array of issues, private and public, involved in or arising from international commercial dispute resolution in China.
In: China and International Commercial Dispute Resolution
Authors: Jian Qiao and Xiaoqian Liu


Under the historical direction of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new age in 2017, the employment of workers improved steadily, and the unemployment rate reached the lowest point since the financial crisis. The salaries of workers increased stably. The State Council made greater efforts to deal with salary payments that were in arrears. The social security system basically covered all qualified persons in order to promote the integration of pension insurance throughout the country. Safety in the workplace developed positively and the opinion of the central government indicated the developmental direction regarding this aspect. The total number of labor disputes and the number of people involved decreased, but it was still at the highest historical level. According to the 8th Survey of Employees’ Working Conditions, the new generation of migrant workers had become the major workforce and had a higher educational background. The Internet had become an important space for them to obtain information and conduct social interactions, changing their living and working styles. In the Reform Plan for the Construction of the Industrial Labor Force in the New Age, the goal to improve the overall quality of the labor force led to a strategic task to establish a labor force with knowledge, skills, and innovations. In this report, we have for the first time analyzed the influence of the sharing economy on the employment relationship and new styles of working.

In: Analysis and Forecast of China’s Social Conditions (2018)

This paper empirically studies the relationship between the governance mechanisms and the market valuation of publicly listed firms in China. The authors construct measures for corporate governance mechanisms and measures of market valuation for all publicly listed firms on the two stock markets in China by using data from the firm’s annual reports. They then investigate how the market-valuation variables are affected by the corporate governance variables while controlling for a number of factors commonly considered in market valuation analysis. A corporate governance index is also constructed to summarize the information contained in the corporate governance variables. The index is found to have statistically and economically significant effects on market valuation. The analysis indicates that investors pay a significant premium for well-governed firms in China, benefiting firms that improve their governance mechanisms.

In: Frontiers of Economics in China
In: The Civil Code of the People’s Republic of China