Mignon R. Jacobs

Abstract

The call for Israel’s return to YHWH resounds in the prophetic text and utilizes various images to illustrate Israel’s and YHWH’s behaviors. These images depict the strained relationship between YHWH and Israel and the persistence of the Deity in maintaining the relationship. This study focuses on Hosea 11 and Amos 4 as examples of the call and distinct perspectives of the YHWH-Israel behavioral and relational dynamics. It looks at the place of the past, present, and future in the formulation of the call to return and offers conclusions about the implications of the analysis on the understanding of the YHWH-Israel relationship.

Benjamin I. Page and Jacobs, Lawrence R.

Jacob R. Withee and Sandra M. Rehan

Dominance hierarchies represent some of nature’s most rudimentary social structures, and aggression is key to their establishment in many animal species. Previous studies have focused on the relative influences of prior experience and physiological traits of individuals in determining social rank through aggression. Here we examine the behavioural potential for dominance hierarchy formation in the subsocial small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata. Both physiological traits and social experience were found to play partial roles in predicting future interactive behaviour in this species. Our results suggest that individual size is associated with dominance in initial encounters, while prior experience plays a larger role in predicting dominance in subsequent encounters. Social systems in the early stages of social evolution may well have followed these same predictive factors and these factors are key targets for future studies of social evolution and the behavioural origins of dominance hierarchies.

Khan Bahadur Jacob ben Israel., Erulkar, David S., Ezekiel, R. J. and Samson, I. J.