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Abstract

National lockdowns due to Covid-19 negatively impacted schools, especially those in rural areas, due to limited technological infrastructure. Most studies conducted during the lockdowns revealed that no learning was delivered to most learners in rural schools, even though some accessed educational radio and television programmes. This chapter aims to equip rural teachers and school managers with knowledge and skills to use open educational practices (OEP), broad descriptors of practices that include the creation, use and reuse of open educational resources (OER), as well as open pedagogies and open sharing of teaching practices. The author problematises the lack of technical and digital literacy skills that are a crucial factor affecting the ability of teachers and school managers to adapt resources, mostly multimedia OER, for subsequent reuse. As an output of a National Research Foundation-funded project supporting rural schools with curriculum management and implementation, this chapter will serve as a resource for the project beneficiaries (teachers and school managers in rural areas). Using digital equity as a theoretical base for this chapter, the author emphasises best practices to incorporate OEP into curriculum management and delivery; maps the use of open pedagogy for curriculum and delivery; and proposes a supportive capacity-building framework for school managers to integrate OEP into curriculum management and delivery.

In: Towards Innovative Ways of Managing Curriculum in Rural Secondary Schools in the Twenty-First Century
Chapter 4 The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in the Identification of Barriers to Teaching and Learning

Abstract

One of the dominant assumptions made about the identification of barriers to teaching and learning is that only psychological and medical tests can be used. Research indicate that the identification of barriers to teaching and learning begins with continuous assessment during the presentation of lessons in the classroom by the teacher. However, there is little capacity provided to teachers to do proper identification, hence the reliance on psychometric assessments. The focus of this chapter will be on the role played by information and communication technologies (ICTs) in identifying barriers to teaching and learning in the classroom. The use of health and medical practitioners in identifying teaching and learning barriers in the classroom has created a gap which took away the role of teachers in identifying and addressing teaching and learning barriers. This gap will be explored with the question in mind of whether the identification of barriers should be understood from an inclusion perspective or a psychological/medical perspective. This chapter will argue that ICTs have a comprehensible role in identifying barriers to teaching and learning and to align that with the role of open distance and e-learning education in capacitating pre-service teachers.

In: Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT
Introduction Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT
In: Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT
In: Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT
In: Contextualising Rural Education in South African Schools
South Africa's democratic government inherited a divided and unequal system of education. Under apartheid, South Africa had nineteen different educational departments separated by race, language, geography and ideology. This education system prepared learners in different ways for the positions they were expected to occupy in social, economic and political life under apartheid and was funded and resourced in ways that favoured white people and disadvantaged black people who remain in the working class. The newly elected democratic government in 1994 laid a foundation for a single national education system. Twenty-five years after the dawn of democracy, education is still in a parlous state in many communities in South Africa, but it is in the rural areas mainly in the former homelands that learners are most disadvantaged.

Contributors are: Olufemi Timothy Adigun, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani, Alan Bhekisisa Buthelezi, Joyce Phikisile Dhlamini, Bongani Thulani Gamede, Samantha Govender, Lawrence Kehinde, Nontobeko Prudence Khumalo, Primrose Ntombenhle Khumalo, Azwidohwi Philip Kutame, Manthekeleng Linake, Sive Makeleni, Nkhensani Maluleke, Bothwell Manyonga, Mncedisi Christian Maphalala, Takalani Mashau, Hlengiwe Romualda Mhlongo, Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe, Dumisani Wilfred Mncube, Nicholus Tumelo Mollo, Ramashego Shila Mphahlele, Fikile Mthethwa, Grace Matodzi Muremela, Edmore Mutekwe, Nokuthula Hierson Ndaba, Clever Ndebele, Thandiwe Nonkululeko Ngema, Phiwokuhle Ngubane, Sindile Ngubane, Dumisani Nzima, Livhuwani Peter Ramabulana, and Maria Tsakeni.
The majority of South African principals believe that subject heads and Heads of Departments should be in charge of curriculum and teaching monitoring. Due to this impression, curricular management by principals does not support teaching and learning. According to the KZN department of education's study from 2015 on curriculum management and delivery plan, principals now spend more time on administrative responsibilities and learner discipline than on topics related to instructional leadership. This book emphasizes how major social and economic development in rural areas is necessary in order to achieve actual quality education. Until then, the educational options available in rural areas will restrict people's ability to live long, productive lives and to learn and experience freedom, dignity, and self-respect.

Contributors are: Bongani Thulani Gamede, Samantha Govender, Nontobeko Prudence Khumalo, Azwidohwi Kutame, Mncedisi Christian Maphalala, Rachel Gugu Mkhasibe, Dumisani Wilfred Mncube, Ramashego Shila Mphahlele, Fikile Mthethwa, Edmore Mutekwe, Nokuthula Hierso Ndaba, Thandiwe Nonkululeko Ngema, Phiwokuhle Bongiwe Ngubane, Sindile Ngubane and Dumisani Nzima.
Part 2 The Use of ICT to Empower Students in Different Areas
In: Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT
Part 1 Identification and Support of Barriers to Learning in School and Open Distance and e-Learning
In: Empowering Students and Maximising Inclusiveness and Equality through ICT