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, Riyāḍa (a.), les mathématiques arabes.

in Encyclopédie de l'Islam en ligne (EI-2 French)
Editors: and
This second volume of Oeuvres philosophiques et scientifiques d'al-Kindī deals with the first metaphysical and cosmological writings in Islamic philosophy. It contains a new critical edition and French translation of six treatises due to al-Kindī, all devoted to these matters. It also contains fragments quoted by the Philosopher's successors. All those writings, rigorously edited and translated, brought together point out the true conception of philosophy of al-Kindī, philosopher and mathematician.
Author:

, al-riyāḍa (a.), mathematics.

in Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Online (EI-2 English)
In: Inclusion through Access to Higher Education
Author:

Abstract

This article examines how the knowledge of Arabic science allows a better understanding of “classical science”. The latter is traditionally considered to be the early modern European science which gradually replaced Aristotelian physics and cosmology with a new rationality characterised by mechanism, mathematisation and experiment. Rashed argues that the new rationality of classical science was introduced earlier by Arabic science between the ninth and the twelfth centuries. This new rationality was both algebraic and experimental. It relied upon algebra’s own development after al-Khawārizmī (780–850), as well as in its relationship with other mathematical disciplines. It is based on a new ontology, making possible what was not possible before. For example, the same subject could be determined both geometrically and arithmetically; a problem could have an infinite number of true solutions; an approximate solution could be a true solution and an impossible solution could also be a true solution. As far as experiment is concern, Arabic science conceives a new concept of proof in physics and accepted that the level on which a physical object existed was no longer its “natural” level, but was within the real of the experimental.

This new algebraic and experimental rationality, which characterises classical modernity, was founded between the ninth and the twelfth century by scholars as far apart as Muslim Spain and China, all of whom were writing in Arabic.

In: Mathematics and Physics in Classical Islam
Author:

Abstract

In his article “Ibn al-Haytham: between Mathematics and Physics”, Rashed explains, in a more detailed manner, the meaning of the combination between mathematics and physics that emerges in the works of Ibn al-Haytham. In astronomy, Ibn al-Haytham, having found contradictions in Ptolemy, established a totally geometrical celestial kinematics, independent of cosmological considerations and of Aristotelian dynamics. The result was a model of the apparent motion of the “seven planets” halfway between Ptolemy and Kepler. In optics, Ibn al-Haytham reformed the optics of Euclid and Ptolemy, which was a geometry of perception, and modified the doctrine of the Islamic Aristotelian philosophers of Islam, who considered the forms perceived by the eye as “totalities” transmitted by the objects under the effect of light. He separated the theory of vision from the theory of light and established experimentally that light propagates independently of vision from illuminated objects onto the eye in straight lines and, he assumed, with great speed. In so doing, he founded a totally geometrical optics. The advances he accomplished in astronomy and optics were similar: he mathematised these disciplines and combined this mathematisation with the ideas of the physical phenomena.

In: Mathematics and Physics in Classical Islam
In: Crossing Frontiers
In: Platonism and Christianity in Late Ancient Cosmology