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This chapter reviews the current understanding of odour-mediated host-seeking behaviour in mosquitoes based on laboratory (indoor) studies. Most recent studies have focused on Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, as these species are all strongly associated with human biting and disease transmission. Where relevant, reference to other mosquito species is provided. Host seeking in mosquitoes is mediated primarily by chemical cues, and therefore most studies focus on the response to host odours and identification of specific compounds or odour blends. Laboratory tools for the study of odour-mediated behaviour include Y-tube and dual-choice (or dual-port) olfactometers, wind tunnels and room-size arenas in which mosquitoes can fly freely. Mosquitoes are observed individually or in groups, usually at a specified age or range of ages, at a pre-determined time of the day when they are considered to be naturally responsive to host cues. Aedes aegypti and An. gambiae respond strongly to natural human skin emanations, whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus shows variation in this behaviour dependent on its geographic origin. Carbon dioxide acts as a principal stimulus for each of these mosquito species although with a variable species-specific effect. Several host-derived compounds have been identified that cause behavioural responses in these mosquito species, including ammonia, L(+)-lactic acid and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In addition, acetone and dimethyl disulfide enhance the attraction of blends of these compounds to Ae. aegypti. Some other ketones, such as 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranyl acetone disrupt the host-seeking process of Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. Several aldehydes, such as octanal and nonanal, are attractive to Cx. quinquefasciatus, and reduce upwind flight and the total number of landings in Ae. aegypti. Based on these data odour blends have been identified that are attractive to these mosquito species, albeit less so than natural human odour, indicating that additional, hitherto unidentified, semiochemicals are involved in host-seeking behaviour that are likely to improve the efficacy of blends. Behavioural research combined with studies on molecular olfaction is ongoing to discover compounds that affect the host-seeking process, and further research under semi-field and field conditions is required to explore the effectiveness of putative attractants and repellents in natural circumstances.

Open Access
In: Olfaction in vector-host interactions

Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), the common housefly, is found in close conjunction with humans and their livestock around the world. The flies cause annoyance to people and are vectors of several diseases. Commonly-used control methods (cultural, chemical, biological, traps and baits) do not result in reducing fly populations to acceptable levels. Research on integrated control approaches is required. Models based on expected climate changes predict a substantial increase in fly populations over the next decades, which may result in a considerable expansion in the incidence of fly-borne diseases, thereby endangering health and well-being of people globally. This strengthens the need for intensive studies on the behaviour, ecology, and vectorial capacity of houseflies.

Open Access
In: Emerging pests and vector-borne diseases in Europe

Arthropod-borne diseases and ectoparasite infestation of livestock remain a serious veterinary and economic problem worldwide. Furthermore, nuisance biting by haematophagous arthropods can result in a significant disruption to livestock behaviour and production. Existing tools for managing pest arthropods have so far not been successful in providing elimination or effective control of many pest arthropod species. The rapid emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and the on-going burden of those currently circulating mean that the need to develop new tools and interventions for pest management is urgent. A vast array of host-derived, arthropod-derived and environmental semiochemicals regulate the behaviour of pest arthropods and, therefore, many of these present promising targets for control interventions. This chapter details the principles of semiochemical-based approaches to arthropod surveillance and control and the major arthropod behavioural targets (host-seeking, sugar-feeding and oviposition/larviposition behaviour) that need to be understood to enable successful interventions to take place. The chapter then reviews current progress towards semiochemical-based approaches for the surveillance and control of major arthropod pests: tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae), black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), horn flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae), and ticks (Ixodida: Ixodoidea).

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

Worldwide the livestock industry, from small farmers to large industrialized farms, is affected by arthropods and arthropod-borne diseases at various scales, which cause huge losses and are a constraint to socio-economic development. Farmers make considerable efforts to prevent and control pest and disease incidence, often requiring the use of vaccines, if available, drugs and pesticides. Examples of current problems are presented, to set the stage for the detailed and state-of-the-art presentations of specific cases of livestock pests and their associated diseases and modern methods of prevention and control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry

How to control economically important vector-borne diseases? What are the best strategies to protect livestock from vector-borne diseases in a changing environment? How to evaluate and assess the acceptability, cost efficiency and cost benefit of the control and surveillance methods? The information in this book will help to answer these questions. It aims at presenting the latest information on vector-borne diseases affecting livestock worldwide, from state-of-the art interventions to the assessment of the impact of these control measures.

This book is a valuable tool for entomologists and all those involved in pest and vector control.

Open Access
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry