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This article recounts the story of how the Circassians have been able to raise awareness of their deportation in the 1860s during the Caucasian Wars. After a brief methodology the authors provide an overview of the Circassian history. The second section analyses the period when the Circassian population came under Russian rule after the 1860s. The third part focuses on three broad approaches or strategies used by several Circassian groups to increase the awareness of the Circassian subjugation in the 1860s. The last two sections discuss some of the changes that have occurred as a direct result of the work undertaken by Circassian organisations. The authours argue that the Circassians have created lieux de mémoire, especially since the beginning of the 1990s, what does not always overlap with the dominant Russian perception of history in the North Caucasus. The analysis demonstrates how the Circassians have (re)discovered their story and the impact of this new information on their actions.

In: Iran and the Caucasus
Author: Charlotte Hille
Contributor: Renee Gendron
In Clans and Democratization, Charlotte Hille investigates clan societies in Afghanistan, Iraq, Albania and Chechnya. She explores and compares the values of clans with those in Western democratic states, while focusing at conflict resolution and democratization. Based on theory and practice, this book provides tools to facilitate democratic state building in clan-based societies.
In: Clans and Democratization: Chechnya, Albania, Afghanistan and Iraq
In: Clans and Democratization: Chechnya, Albania, Afghanistan and Iraq