In the ancient Mediterranean world, sacrifices provided occasions at which boundaries between groups and social roles within groups were created and maintained. The Apostle Paul forbade gentiles who became followers of Jesus from continuing to participate in these sacrifices. Paul’s debate with the Corinthian church evident in 1 Corinthians 8–10 suggests that some in Corinth had concluded otherwise. This essay explores the usefulness of Éric Rebillard’s application of identity theory, in his analysis of Tertullian’s De idololatria, for understanding the response of some in Corinth to Paul’s demand that they avoid Greco-Roman sacrifices.
This study presents data on the positional behavior of Callicebus torquatus and Callicebus brunneus collected from two different localities in Peru. C. brunneus primarily utilizes short-distance, bounding leaps, while C. torquatus relies predominantly on quadrupedal walking. Both species utilize small, horizontal and terminal branches more than any other substrate class. We relate the differences in locomotor behaviors between the two species to their utilization of different forest levels. C. brunneus tends to reside in the understory and brush layer forest levels. These more discontinuous strata necessitate higher frequencies of short-distance leaping. C. torquatus occupies the more continuous, interconnected canopy level, and much of its food is found in this level. Comparisons with other species show that Callicebus spp. locomote along smaller-sized, horizontal branches using quadrupedal progression and leaping.