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Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses
These studies focus on personal eschatology in the Jewish and early Christian apocalypses. The apocalyptic tradition from its Jewish origins until the early middle ages is studied as a continuous literary tradition, in which both continuity of motifs and important changes in understanding of life after death can be charted.
As well as better known apocalypses, major and often pioneering attention is given to those neglected apocalypses which portray human destiny after death in detail, such as the Apocalypse of Peter, the Apocalypse of the
Seven Heavens, the later apocalypses of Ezra, and the four apocalypses of the Virgin Mary. Relationships with Greco-Roman eschatology are explored.
Several chapters show how specific New Testament texts are illuminated by close knowledge of this tradition of ideas and images of the hereafter.


The book of Ruth is written from a female perspective, which in 4:9-17 is deliberately contrasted with a male perspective. The inter-textual contrast between the gynocentricity of Ruth and the androcentricity of most narrative literature in the Hebrew Bible is recognized within the text of Ruth by the appending of the genealogy in 4:18-22. Here the male voice of compilers of traditional patrilineal genealogies replaces the female voice of the story. Though the story and the genealogy purport to recount the same history, the women's world of the story is completely ignored by the genealogy. This contrast characterizes Ruth as the kind of history which official, masculine Israelite history leaves out. Thus the conclusion of the book, which functions to give it a canonical setting in the larger biblical story, also gives it the specific canonical function of exposing the androcentricity of other biblical narratives. The book's revelation of the women's world which other narratives render invisible can therefore function canonically, not merely as an exception to the prevalent androcentricity of biblical literature, but also representatively, authorizing the reader to supply the female perspectives which are elsewhere omitted. This study of Ruth, it is suggested, offers an example of a feminist canonical hermeneutic which would also explore the specific ways in which other gynocentric texts within the canon (such as those parts of the Gospels which adopt the perspective of their female characters) can function canonically. Allowing these gynocentric texts a canonical role of relativizing the androcentric texts makes possible a feminist hermeneutic which can take the canon seriously as a body of literature normative for faith and practice.

In: Biblical Interpretation
In: Horizons in Biblical Theology
In: Novum Testamentum
In: Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus