Most studies of parasite-mediated sexual selection target organisms where female or male mate choice is the major driving force of sexual selection, leaving the effects of parasites on coercive mating systems understudied. Here, we investigated the role of a trematode infestation (black spot disease (BSD)) on female body condition, female fecundity, male coercion, and female resistance in a coercive livebearing fish (the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis). We tested the following predictions: (1) infected females are in poorer body condition and have lower fecundity than uninfected females; (2) males prefer to coerce uninfected females; (3) infected males coerce less frequently than uninfected males; and (4) infected females are less resistant to male coercion. In contrast to our first prediction, infected females had more energy reserves than uninfected females during one month and infected females had increased fecundity compared to uninfected females. In the behavior experiments, we found BSD influenced male coercion in two of our experiments supporting our third, but not second or fourth, prediction. These results suggest this parasitic infestation may play a minor role in sexual selection on G. affinis.

In: Behaviour

Mid-rotation fertilization is a common practice in the management of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations, typically providing large improvements in growth. However, concerns exist about the quality of wood produced following fertilization. The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of wood property changes following fertilization. Wood samples from a study involving four levels of fertilization applied to a thinned mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation located on the lower coastal plain of North Carolina were sampled. The study was laid out in a randomized complete block design involving four blocks and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer: Control-000, 112, 224 and 336 kg/ha, along with 28 kg/ha of phosphorus with all treatments. Thirty-two trees were felled and disks were cut at five heights from each tree. Wood properties including modulus of elasticity, air-dry density and tracheid anatomical properties were measured for each of the three post-fertilization annual growth rings using near infrared (NIR) spectra obtained from the radial face of strips cut from the disks. An analysis of variance was conducted on three-year basal area weighted average stiffness, air-dry density, and tracheid anatomical properties. A decrease in stiffness, air-dry density, tracheid wall thickness, and an increase in tracheid radial diameter were observed for the heaviest fertilizer treatment (336 kg/ha) compared to the control and 112 kg/ha of nitrogen. Microfibril angle (MFA), cell tangential diameter, and tracheid perimeter showed little change. Wood properties of trees receiving fertilizer rates of 112 and 224 kg/ha were not significantly affected.

In: IAWA Journal

The brain should integrate sensory inputs only when they emanate from a common source and segregate those from different sources. Sensory correspondences are important cues informing the brain whether two sensory inputs are generated by a common event and should hence be integrated. Most prominently, sensory inputs should co-occur in time and space. More complex audiovisual stimuli may also be congruent in terms of semantics (e.g., objects and source sounds) or phonology (e.g., spoken and written words; linked via common linguistic labels). Surprisingly, metaphoric relations (e.g., pitch and height) have also been shown to influence audiovisual integration. The neural mechanisms that mediate these metaphoric congruency effects are only poorly understood. They may be mediated via (i) natural multisensory binding, (ii) common linguistic labels or (iii) semantics. In this talk, we will present a series of studies that investigate whether these different types of audiovisual correspondences are processed by distinct neural systems. Further, we investigate how those systems are employed by metaphoric audiovisual correspondences. Our results demonstrate that different classes of audiovisual correspondences influence multisensory integration at distinct levels of the cortical hierarchy. Spatiotemporal incongruency is detected already at the primary cortical level. Natural (e.g., motion direction) and phonological incongruency influences MSI in areas involved in motion or phonological processing. Critically, metaphoric interactions emerge in neural systems that are shared with natural and semantic incongruency. This activation pattern may reflect the ambivalent nature of metaphoric audiovisual interactions relying on both natural and semantic correspondences.

In: Seeing and Perceiving

- Victoria J. Baker, Anthony Jackson, Anthropology at home, ASA monographs 25, London: Tavistock Publications, 1987, 221 pages. - Thomas Bargatzky, Martin A. van Bakel, Private politics; A multi-disciplinary approach to ‘Big-Man’ systems, Studies in Human Society, Vol. I, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1986. x, 220 pp., illustrations, maps, index., Renée R. Hagesteijn, Pieter van de Velde (eds.) - W.E.A. van Beek, Victor W. Turner, The anthropology of experience, (with an epilogue by Clifford Geertz). Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1986., Edward M. Bruner (eds.) - W. van den Broeke, H. Meyer, De Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; Driekwart eeuw koloniaal spoor, Zutphen: Walburg Pers, met medewerking van F.A.J. Heckler. 1987; 152 blz. - R. Buijtenhuijs, S. Bernus et al., Le fils et le neveu: Jeux et enjeux de la parenté tourarègue, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 1986, XI, 343 pp. - R. Buijtenhuijs, Dominique Casajus, La tente dans la solitude: La société et les morts chez les Touaregs Kel Ferwan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 1987, 390 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Christine Ward Gailey, Kinship to kingship; Gender hierarchy and state formation in the Tongan Islands. Austin: University of Texas Press (Texas Press Sourcebooks in Anthropology, No. 14.), 1987. 326 pp., figs., index, bibl. - Alfred E. Daniëls, Richard B. Davis, Muang metaphysics, Bangkok: Pandora Press,1984. - Alfred E. Daniëls, Gehan Wijeyewardene, Place and emotion in northern Thai ritual behaviour, Bangkok: Pandora Press, 1986. - P.M.H. Groen, Jacques van Doorn, The process of decolonization 1945-1975; The military experience in comparitive perspective, CASP publications no. 17, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, 1987, 46 pp., Willem J. Hendrix (eds.) - Rosemarijn Hoefte, Luis H. Daal, Antilliaans verhaal. Zutphen: De Walburg Pers, 1988, Ted Schouten (eds.) - W.L. Idema, Claudine Salmon, Literary migrations; Traditional Chinese fiction in Asia (17th-20th centuries), Beijing: International culture publishing corporation, 1987, 11 + vi + 661 pp. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Sharon A. Carstens, Cultural identity in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Monographs in international studies, Southeast Asia series no. 63, 1986. 91 pp. - P.E. de Josselin de Jong, Robert Wessing, The soul of ambiguity: The tiger in Southeast Asia. Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian studies, Special report no. 24, 1986. 148 pp., glossary, bibliography. - G.W. Locher, Martine Segalen, Historical anthropology of the family, Cambridge University Press, 1986, 328 pp. - Bernd Nothofer, Hans Kähler, Enggano-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben und mit einem Deutsch-Enggano-Wörterverzeichnis versehen von Hans Schmidt, Veröffentlichungen des Seminars für Indonesische und Südseesprachen der Universität Hamburg, Band 14, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1987. XIII + 404 pp. - J.D.M. Platenkamp, Brigitte Renard-Clamagirand, Marobo; Une société ema de Timor. Langues et civillisations de l’Asie du sud-est et du monde insulindien no. 12, Paris: Selaf, 1983, 490 pp. - H.C.G. Schoenaker, Leo Frobenius, Ethnographische Notizen aus den Jahren 1905 und 1906; II: Kuba, Leele, Nord-Kete; III: Luluwa, Süd-Kete, Bena Mai, Pende, Cokwe. Bearb.u.hrsg. von Hildegard Klein. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1987; 1988. 223 S., 437 Zeichnungen, 11 fotos, 5 karten; 268 S., 500 Zeichnungen, 15 fotos, 12 karten. - M. Schoffeleers, I.M. Lewis, Religion in context: Cults and charisma, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, X + 139 pp. - B. Schuch, Ingrid Liebig-Hundius, Thailands Lehrer zwischen ‘Tradition’ und `Fortschritt’; Eine empirische Untersuchung politisch-sozialer und pädagogischer Einstellungen thailändischer Lehrerstudenten des Jahres 1974. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Band 85, Weisbaden: Steiner Verlag, 1984, 342 pp. - Henke Schulte Nordholt, S.J. Tambiah, Thought and social action; An anthropological perspective, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, 411 pp. - Nico G. Schulte Nordholt, Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, From British to Bumiputra rule: Local politics and rural development in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 1986. 282 pp. - A. Teeuw, I. Syukri, History of the Malay kingdom of Patani - Sejarah Kerajaan Melayu Patani, by Ibrahim Syukri (pseudonym), translated by Conner Bailey and John N. Miksic. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International studies, monographs in international studies Southeast Asia series number 68, 1985. xx + 90 pp. - Truong Quang, Andrew Vickerman, The fate of the peasantry: Premature `transition to socialism’ in the democratic republic of Vietnam, Monograph No. 28, Yale University, Southeast Asia studies, 1986. 373 pp., incl. bibliography. - Adrian Vickers, H.I.R. Hinzler, Catalogue of Balinese manuscripts in the library of the University of Leiden and other collections in the Netherlands, vol. I: Reproductions of the drawings from the Van der Tuuk collection; vol. II: Descriptions of the Balinese drawings form the Van der Tuuk collection. Leiden: E.J. Brill/Leiden University Press, 1987.