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In Narratives of Kingship in Eurasian Empires, 1300-1800 Richard van Leeuwen analyses representations and constructions of the idea of kingship in fictional texts of various genres, especially belonging to the intermediate layer between popular and official literature. The analysis shows how ideologies of power are embedded in the literary and cultural imagination of societies, their cultural values and conceptualizations of authority. By referring to examples from various empires (Chinese, Indian, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, European) the parallels between literary traditions are laid bare, revealing remarkable common concerns. The process of interaction and transmission are highlighted to illustrate how literature served as a repository for ideological and cultural values transforming power into authority in various imperial environments.
The author proposes in this study a new, integrative approach to the phenomenon of Muslim pious foundations, or waqfs. The evolution of the institution is analysed from the perspective of the formation of power systems, which shaped both the elaboraton of the textual framework of the institution and the practices connected with the founding and administration of waqf-objects. The growing interference of the state in the field of waqfs and in the hierarchy of the ulama is seen as essential for the development of the institution in the Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman periods. The waqf institution is presented as a determining factor in the growth and structure of Muslim cities, both on the level of political and economic control and on the level of social cohesion. To illustrate these views, the example of Damascus is discussed, by using archival and printed, legal and historical sources from different periods, focusing on the 18th century.
In: Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions
The Khāzin Sheikhs and the Maronite Church (1736-1840)
Notables and Clergy in Mount Lebanon analyzes the relations between the Maronite notables and the Church in the context of socio-economic transformations in Mount Lebanon in the period 1736-1840. Special attention is given to the influence of external forces, such as the economic interference of the European nations, the Syrian and Ottoman administrative framework and the increasing involvement of the Vatican in the affairs of the Maronite community. The emphasis is laid on the role of religious foundations, or waqfs, in the process of social and economic integration, both within the Maronite community and in the wider frameworks in which it gradually became incorporated. These external and internal factors can explain the remarkable political emancipation of the Maronite Church, which assumed an important role in the history of Mount Lebanon in the 19th century.
In: Prince, Pen, and Sword: Eurasian Perspectives
In: Narratives of Kingship in Eurasian Empires, 1300-1800
In: Narratives of Kingship in Eurasian Empires, 1300-1800