In the last few decades, modern theological and philosophical research has witnessed the emergence of theories of recognition. In this article, I will show that current notions from recognition theory can be used as conceptual instruments for reading and interpreting Petrus Alfonsi’s multifaceted dialogue, Dialogi contra Iudaeos from around 1110. In the analysis of recognition between the actors of the Dialogi, it will be asked what the common basis for accepting arguments in the text is and how the author employs reason or authorities in the disputation, with the search for shared premises for discussion and common judging principles being important elements. The article also takes into account the rhetorical aspects of the treatise, analysing the various ways of positing the interlocutors and addressing arguments. It will be shown that the dialogic process itself, positive rhetorical praxis, and the commonly accepted diversity in argumentative paradigms are necessary for the elementary level of mutual recognition, which, however, still remains asymmetrical in character in Peter Alfonsi’s Dialogi.